Science Quiz / Male Reproductive Pathlogy

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Can you name the Male Reproductive Pathlogy

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HintAnswerExtra Info
Most common location for BPH
Most common location for prostate cancer
Normal components of the prostate (histo)
Suprapubic discomfort, low grade fever, +/- bacteria
hyperplasia of prostatic glands and stroma, common part of aging
BPH path: primary mediator of prostatic growth
Converts testosterone to DHT in the prostate gland
BPH path: main cell type involved
Treatment of BPH
BPH gross
BPH micro
BPH secondary changes
second leading cause of cancer deaths in men, adenocarcinoma, increased incidence, 80% by 80yo, african > european > asian
prostate cancer molecular defects
Most common epigenetic alteration in prostate cancer
Biomarkers of Prostate Cancer
serine protease secreted in seminal fluid, elevated in patients with prostatic ca, bph, prostatitis, trauma, infarct, dre, ejaculation
Ratio between the serum PSA value and volume of prostate gland
rate of change in PSA value with time
Proliferation of neoplastic cells with large ducts
Gross: palpably hard, tan/white nodule, most often tumor is NOT grossly visible
Microscopic features: small glands with infilrative pattern, nuclear enlargement, prominent nucleoli, single-cell layer, perineural invasion
The best marker to predict prognosis of prostate cancer
Prostate cancer staging- which stage is confined to the prostate?
Prostate met involving the vertebral column
HintAnswerExtra Info
Treatment of prostate cancer confined to organ
Treatment of prostate cancer that's localized (alternative to prostatectomy)
Treatment for prostate cancer with advanced/metastatic disease
urethral opening in ventral surface, 1 in 300
urethral opening of the dorsal surface
prepuce can not be retracted
phimotic prepuce is forcibly retracted, leading to constriction and swelling, pain, and acute urinary retention
Penis infections: STI's- list the three most common diseases
Conjunctivitis, polyarthritis, genital infection caused by C. trachomatis
Primary- chancre, Secondary- condyloma lata, Tertiary- neuro
Squamous cell displaying nuclear margination, molding, multinuclear vesicles
Gross: pearly papules, Histo: crater with viral bodies maturing towards the top
Penis tumor: Gross: single/multiple, sessile/pedunculated, red/papillary excrescencies; micro: papillary proliferation with squamous cells, koilocytosis- clear vacuolization of the
Risk factors: poor hygene and phimosis, smegma accumulation, genital warts; circumcision is protective, associated with HPV 16 and 18,
Undescended testes
Complication of cryptorchidism
serosal cavity- mesothelial lined sac immediately proximal to testis and epididymis
clear fluid (transillumination) btwn testes mesothelial layers
blood (trauma, torsion) btwn testes meso layers
lymph (elephantiasis) btwn testes meso layers
semen btwn meso layers of testes
dilated veins in the spermatic cord, bag of worms
Caused by viral (mumps, coxackie B), bacterial (e.coli, neisseria and chlamydia), granulomatous (TB, syphillis, sarcoidosis, leprosy, brucellosis)
caused by gonorrhea and TB
twisting of spermatic cord --> thick walled arteries patent --> vascular engorgement --> infarction ; Gross : congestion --> edema --> hemorrhage --> hemorrhagic infarct --> fibros
HintAnswerExtra Info
most common tumor in men
Seminoma, embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumor, choriocarcinoma, teratoma
teratocarcinoma (embryonal + teratoma)
Leydig cell tumor, sertoli cell tumor
localized to testes for long time, radiosensitive, met to lymph, LDH
Aggresive, hematogenous spread to lungs and liver, radioresistant
Cryptorchidism (higher location, higher risk), gonadal dysgenesis with Y chromosome, testicular feminization, presence of intratubular germ cell neoplasia, HIV infection, NOT traum
Molecular defect in 90% of testicular tumors
Elevated AFP
Elevated HCG
malignant germ cell tumor, intratubular proliferation of malignant germ cells, large atypical cells, abundant clear cytoplasm, 'fried egg' nucleoli
most common germ cell tumor
Peak 20-30yo, Gross: variegated, poorly demarcated foci of necrosis and hemorrhage; micro shows large anaplastic cells with prominent nucleoli with indistinct cell borders arranged
most common testicular tumor in infants up to 3yo
elevated bHCG, micro shows syncytiotrophoblasts and cytotrophoblasts
tumor composed of tissue from ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm; mature and immature with malignant transformation
most common sex-cord stromal tumor; crystalloids of reinke
most common testicular neoplasm in men >60 yo, bilateral
most common bilateral primary testicular tumor
most common testicular tumor in adults
most common bilateral tumor in adults
most common testicular tumor in infants
most common nongerm tumor of testes
which are more common in testes- mixed tumors or pure histologic type tumors?
 

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