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Cognitve Psychology Study Guide

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Group of psychologists from the Psychological Institute of the University of Wurzburg that argued for 'thought psychology' in the imageless thought controversy/debate
Identified top-down and bottom-up processing
Requires subjects to describe the elements they perceived in simple colors, sounds, and tastes
Approach to psychology that explained perception as the adding up of small elementary units called sensations
The acquisition, storage, retrieval, and use of information
Occurs in the CNS after sensory stimuli in the internal or external environment generate nerve impulses which in turn convey information regarding the environment change to the CNS
Use of magnetic fields and computerized images to locate mental operations in the brain
Experiment used a visual search task to measure reaction time. -Pt Asked to find specific stimuli when mixed in with a grid of similar or different objects.
Provides brief storage for information in its original sensory form and extends the amount of time a person has to recognize a pattern
The storage and recovery of information
The study of the relation between cognitive processes and brain activities
One instance or occurrence of a particular behavior following a stimulus
A temporally ordered sequence of operations for carrying out some task
Memory that has no limits and deteriorates slowly if at all
The stage of perception during which a stimulus is identified
Founded Structuralism
Theory that states that a behavioral action has an underlying purpose, and all goals of the action guide behavior until the goal is reached
Debate between the Würzburgers and the Structuralists over how thought process should be studied in the early 1900s
Phenomena where subjects alter their behavior because they are being observed
Environmental event that can be detected by one of the senses
Study of how to produce computer programs that can perform intellectually demanding tasks
Process of expressing mental processes and ideas in symbolic way, by use of words or sound
Used non-sense syllables to measure memory
Refers to all the sensory stimuli from the physical world that we receive through our five senses
Created TOTE units
State of awareness in which the senses are focused exclusively and selectively on aspects of the environment
The study of intelligence in humans, computer programs, and abstract theories, with an emphasis on intelligent behaviors as computation
Stage of attention in which some perceptual information is blocked out and not recognized while other information receives attention and is subsequently recognized
Name the 6 stages of Information Processing
Brain selecting a fraction of the stimuli it receives, then focusing, organizing, interpreting that information
Strand of behaviorism which acknowledges the reality of conscious events but suggests the only way of studying them is through observing behavior
Idea that meaning in thought can occur without any sensory or imaginal component
Awareness of internal and external stimuli
Memory that has limited capacity and that lasts only approximately 20 to 30 seconds in the absence of attending to its content
One of the two main assumptions of cognitive psychology that assumes the mind takes a computational approach to thought process
Published 'The Science of Mental Life' (1962)
Stimulus-response approach stating psychologists should only study what they could directly observe in a person's behavior
Famous for Little Albert experiment
Study of the structure of complex systems, especially communication processes, control mechanisms, and feedback principles; closely related to control theory and systems theory
Mental pictures of the outside world that we create in our minds
Stage of attention that follows pattern recognition and determines which info a person will try to remember. Limits the amount of material that can be entered into memory
'Father of Cognitive Psychology'
Complex thoughts are formed from combination of elementary ideas, comparable to chemical compounds
Pioneered systematic study of memory 'what conditions are favorable (or unfavorable)
Wrote the book 'Behaviorism'
Theory that the representation of the world is an active construction that can involve both reduction and elaboration.
German physicist who coined the term “psychophysics”
Famous for theory of Imageless Thought
Moment by moment subjective experiences of the world resulting from brain activity
Short-term emotional reactions to events that generate only limited arousal
Use of electrodes placed on the scalp to measure the duration of brain waves during mental tasks
1) Test to obtain some representation of the problem state 2) Operate--intervene in some way 3) Test again to see if the desired results has been achieved. 4) Exit (or loop back).
First to break from Wundt to more ACT Psychology
Use of radioactive tracers to study brain activity by measuring the amount of blood flow in different parts of the brain
Called 'Father of Psychology'
Are affected by the physical world and the physical body; subject to scientific laws and aren’t subjective like mental events
A systematic approach: Identify a specific problem, devise solutions, evaluate solutions, select best and set goals, implement solutions, follow up.
Scientific discipline that studies the relationship between the mind and the physical world
Experiment used classical conditioning to cause 'Little Albert' to fear white mice
Due to the difficulty of studying the inner workings of the human mind, early _______ relied on Systematic Introspection to gather data
First to apply classical conditioning to mental illness
Laid out concept of Mental Chemistry
Requires subjects provide rigorous self-reports of their own internal experiences
Argued cybernetic concepts, such as info feedback, explain purposive (goal-directed) behavior better than reinforcement (stimulus-response)

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