Research design needs to have

Need to explain why a topic would be

These statistics try and make inferences about real-life occurences

This test looks at the relationship between two categorical variables and the significant relationship between frequencies

This test looks at the correlation between two interval variables and looks at the linear relationship between them both

Leading questions are

built in assumptions eg thinking a respondent is familiar with certain concepts is

Simple language and familiar concepts is

Response options need to be

Need to give respondents a

Questions should be

Questions need to be

Vagueness is

Awkwardness is

Two statements with only one response option is a

Agreement scales should be odd or even?

The nature of knowledge - how do we know what we claim to know?

The nature of the world, what we believe exists?

An explanation of observed regularities

Only knowledge gained through experience and the senses is acceptable

Observations and findings lead to theory.

Theory leads to observations and findings to test this theory

The discovery of theory through the analysis of data

This provides a framework for the collection and analysis of data

A technique for collecting data

Are the results of a study are repeatable? Are the measures of concepts consistent?

The integrity of conclusions that are generated from a piece of research

Does a measure/construct really reflect the concept its supposed to be measuring?

Does the conclusion of a relationship between two or more variables hold water>

Can the results of the study be generalised beyond the specific research context

Can the findings be applied to people's everyday, natural settings?

An attribute on which cases vary

The cause variable/predictor variable

The effect variable/outcome variable

The building blocks of theory and represent the points around which social research can be conducted. Represents a label that we give to elements of the social world that seem to h

Looks at the relationship between independent and dependent variables and whether independents cause anything of the dependent variabl

Several coders that code same surveys in the same way, makes coding more reliable

There is no effect H(0)

There is some effect H(1)

The difference between the mean and actual data point

Squaring the deviations to stop + and - cancelling each other out

Square root value of the variance, level of fit of the mean of data and how does the mean represent the data/ the difference between the mean and an actual data point. Tells you ho

Discrepancy between actual value and number being used to measure things

Occurs when we think there's an effect on the population when there isn't

Occurs when we don't think there's an effect on the population when there is

Cramer's V - 0-0.25

Cramer's V 0.26-0.5

Cramer's V 0.51-0.75

Cramer's V 0.76 - 1

R(2) 0.1

R (2) 0.3

R (2) 0. 5

These tests need to have normally distributed data, homogenous vairbales, interval data and be independent

The p value must be less than this to be statistically significant

Research question looking at the typical, normal characteristics of a group

Research questions looking at the relationship and predictive aspect of a relationship

Research questions that looks at the comparison of groups to one another to see if there's statistical significant differences

Descriptive analysis includes

Correlation analysis includes

Chi square tests must have the outcome variable as a

Pearson's R tests must have the outcome variable as

Means require

Cross sectional variables are

Longitudinal variables

Using means in repeated samples to create a range in which the true mean of the population has a 95% chance of being included

A measure of association between two numerical variables (Does not prove causality though)/ a measure of association between two numerical variables, which tracks whether points de

Pearson's R 0.25

Pearson's R 0.5

Pearson's R 0.9

Chi square test must have above this number of values

This test merely looks at the variance of the mean in one direction to the 0.5 level

This test looks at the variance from the mean in both directions to the 0.25 degree

Improvements or changes from effects not specific to the factor or treatment under study

General energising and uplifting effects of a new, exciting experience

Failure to take into account the fact that the experience under study may include more than one component that affects outcome

The tendency of participants to alter their responses with what they believe to be their researcher's hypothesis

The tendency of investigators to unintentionally bias the results in accordance with their hypothesis

A bias in subject responding due to the test instrument rather than the subject's actual belief

Unintentional sampling of respondents that introduces systematic error or bias into the results

A bias from respondents tendency to agree with statements

A standardised (comparable across studies) measure of the size of an effect

Any difference between two variables is due to some systematic influence not to chance. this means the effect is

The amount that a variable deviates from the mean in comparison to another

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