History Quiz / European World history

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Can you name the European World history

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Elite and popular culture converge on this craze
The regular constant dwelling place of the ruler, the place where the actual seat of court was, and the departments of government are to be found
Princely monopoly on war, changes in war techniques and taxation (Noble armies no longer needed, nobles no longer exempt from taxing)
Beliefs, customs, rituals, clothing, artworks, literature and performances for the people
Triumph of Lent, over carnival. Protestant and Catholic authorities target aspects of popular culture. Attempts to control and contain spaces of popular culture like piazzas and al
Charivari/Rough Music/Skimmington
Cheap print esp popular ballads, almanacs, chapbooks
Censorship and regulation
Marie Antoinette had a
Nobility accounted for perhaps ___ of society. Influence out of proportion for their size. Inheritance and familial continuity important
Historiography: Cultural conflict occurred. Elite gradually withdrew from the world. Diversity of culture cannot be underestimated. Most seemed to accept the broadly political orde
Historiography: There has been a redirection of historians attentions to the elite
Historiography: Magical beliefs and practices permeated early modern European society. Prosecution of witches rose during 1560-1660. Quest for greater social discipline. Women disp
Historiography: People weren't as indoctrinated in the German reformation as first thought
Historiography: 50,000 were executed for witchcraft. Women used supernatural means to avenge themselves, no little direct power against their enemies. Men deeply insecure about the
Historiography: Standards of personal behaviour rose. Men and women increasingly absorbed in understanding themselves as individuals. Royal governments became less tolerant of diss
Some influential female rulers include (3 marys)
Impossible in __________ for women to rule
This guy wrote a whole essay about the abomination of Mary I (and female monarchs)
Famous examples of females being educated
Women were irrational and temperamental, bodies were inferior
Hen pecked men were ridiculed (put on horse backwards and paraded through town
Subordinate men developed manly ways eg
Men dressed up as women in enclosure riots because
Women often more involved in popular politics because
Protestantism marginalised women
Condemning wife-beating
1719 - this guy writes an open letter against the education of women
A famous women who had international influence (to Louis XV)
These guys see female dominance as a threat
Some famous women authors, 1400s and 1700s
Women could register as ______ and pretend to be single women for business purposes and then could trade independently
Occupations of women were growing in
Tougher laws on sexual offences etc - Single mothers were deemed guilty of this unless they could prove their innocence (1556 France, 1624 England)
Proto magazines such as this one by John Tipper
Women were often punished in harsher and more unusual ways such as
Historiography: Scientific revolution deepened inferiority - men seen as rational, reaosnable, order and mechanical, women irrational etc
HIstoriography: Gossip networks functioned as an effective weapon to protect and defend communal values and interests. Distinctive female culture of mutual help and support, the pr
Historiography: Masculinity is a relatively new historiographical subject. Move away from clear control of dependents and sexual reputation to a more refined version
Historiography: Earlier expressions of strong emotions were reined in and anger increasingly regarded as a vice
Historiography: This period saw a crisis of gender relations. Repressive sanctions at single women and 'unruly' women being branded as shrews and witches
Historiography: Gender is a primary way of signifying relationships of power
Historiography: The historical experiences of women were not uniform. Growing legal conformity (reliant on Roman Laws). Unmarried women and widows gained the right to hold land of
Historiography: The patriarchy was particularly resilient
Historiography: Women show solidarity with each other when facing male domination
Historiography: Women's positions are characterised by marginality, low wages or low esteem
Historiography: Cite the rise of skilled trade as problematic. People couldn't join trade guilds
Historiography: Women had powers through midwifery and there wre some sections of culture men couldn't take part in. Rise of medicine and Protestantism reduced this role
Historiography: Men occupied the public sphere and wanted to keep women in private
Historiography: (Contemporary) Men have all the strongest arguments, such as guns, pikes, blunderbusses...
In the majority, the political landscape consisted of
Composite monarchies such as
Republics include
By this date, only Venice and San Marino were left as independent self-governing republics
This was due to the ______ )1494-1559)
Overall monarchy, but collection of principalities, cultural divisions and local authorities
Run by a group of elected elites on the basis of laws. Any system of governent that serves public interest of the governed, not private interest of the governors
Kingship often based on _____ or legal claims to power
Monarchs supposedly can heal the sick
Some kingdoms had to be ruled completely individually. So the _____________ monarchy had to rule Aragon, Valencia, Catalonia, Sicily, Naples and the provinces of Netherlands as ind
This was almost inescapable in composite monarchies. Left governors and viceroys in control
This monarchy appointed a council of native councillors attendant on the king and provided a forum in which local opinions and grievances could be voiced at court, and local knowle
Strict constitutional laws could prevent the overall governent replacing existing officials with more loyal ones eg ____________ which forbade the appointment of non-native officia
Sense of personal loyalty to the dynasty was encouraged in composte monarchies. Charles V opened the __________________________ to aristocrats from the various kingdoms of his comp
This revolt of 1591 sought and found justification for its resistance in defence of the just_____ liberties
Religious unity fundamental for survival of composite states
These countries became more unified nation states
Resentment over royal absenteeism, distribution of offices and exclusion from domestic defence, the problem of religious diversity in Kingdoms and the danger of foreign interventio
Only three successful secessions from composite monarchies occured - The Northern provinces of the Netherlands from _________ in the 1570s, Sweden from Poland 1599 and Portugal fro
Thirty years war - Protestant and Catholic states battled it out inside the HRE (Germany) and developed into a more general conflict involving most of the great powers of Europe
This revolt occured in 1566/8 -1648 and was the result of seven provinces (Protestant) against the rule of a Roman Catholic. Formed the independent ________ which grew to be a worl
This series of treaties occured between May and October 1648. Ended the Thirty Years' War. New system of political order was established and it signalled the end of perennial, dest
This country had no single official language before 1539
These ____________ eg Spanish cortes, French Parlements claim the right to remonstrate with princes, responsibility for local taxation, legal adjudication - can be useful for monar
Growing control over ecclesiastical powers. In 1516 - the concordat of bologna, the french monarch was granted the right of nomination of
Courts becoming more established. 1561 - a permanent Spanish court was fixed at
These are all attempts at ___________: 1536-53, Tudor crown incorporates Wales into English system of government; imposes closer control over England through English lord deputies,
These are all examples of ___________: 1567-1602: Revolt in the Netherlands, Rebellion against Elizabeth I in Ireland 1569-73, Rebellions in Scotland and Ireland precipitate Englis
Most explosive rebellions occur over
Catholic fanatics assassinate these guys ______ (1584) ________ (1589)____________ (1610)
Historiography: Highlights the process of nationalisation of borders and growing national consensus over local loyalties, Conformity made unity much easier- similar language custom
Historiography: Closed borders, limited nobility and intermarriage to prevent religious contamination also served to enforce political group identity
Historiography: Interaction between religious and political factors played the motivating force during the Wars of Religion. Religious differences gave an ideological element to po
Historiography: Absolutism did exist in 1670s because there were no theoretical limits on royal authority, but the crown was still dependent on the vertical and practical ties of p
Historiography: Louis XIV operates through the careful manipulation of patronage and factions which were very traditional means. Absolutist historians have seriously overstated the
Historiography: Bourbon Monarchs in the 17th century attempted to extent a measure of control over the semi-autonomous peripheral provinces and the nobilities that dominated them.
Historiography: Regicide and republicanism examples of political practice. Authority relies on general acceptance of political agency. Political theory flows through the media and
Historiography: Most states were composite
Historiography: Monarchy primary source of government. Political authority came mostly from religious convinctions. Neglect of lower classes were causes of major internal disconten
Human fulfilent comes from serving the public domain. Strong influence placed on republicanism, aristocratic and religous rebellions. Foundation of Italian republic politics
Kings were viceregents of God (James VI)
Freedom and political power. Self governance, independence and active civil powr. States needed active citizens in order to defend itself effectively
Virtue is a 'success' as well as a 'goodness'. Civic humanist thinkers promote insitutions that encourage civic participation - promotes senates, assemblies and civic armies
No person is exempt by any law of God from punishment
Defines states and difference between despotism and tyranny. Tyrants can be killed. Sovereign is only bound by natural and divine laws. PUblic office belongs to the commonwealth an
Talked about a 'Utopian Society'. Laws are simple, social gatherings are in public view. Communal ownership and equal education, religious toleration. Highlighting the need for ord
All individuals in that society cede some rights for the sake of protection. Any abuses of power cannot be resisted because people surrender their own sovereign power for protectio
Society is founded on a social contract. Human nature characterised by reason and tolerance and everyone had a natural right to defend his 'life, health and liberty or possessions'
Good laws follow from good military. To remain in opower, a prince must avoid hatred. Better for him to be feared than loved in some instances. Virtues are qualities that are prais
Historiography: It was left unto every nation and country to choose that form of government which they shall like best
Historiography: Kingship is the reflection of natural law and paternal power over the family
Historiography: Dangerous for authority to be delivered in a state. Argued that the kingdom must aim for religious uniformity - advocated persecution and expulsion of Protestant Hu
Historiography: Sovereign state took firmer shape in and after 16th century. Monarchies were in decline and bureaucratic states on the rise
This was a mass rising in England throughout society against economic and religious policies. 40,000 people involved and prevents radical change
(1524-5) This was a rising in Europe, completely failed with many thousand being killed but against economic and religious policies
Everyday resistance includes
Village of _____ - switzerland town which held high degree of autonomy. Given execution power, communal constituion, right to elect parish priests etc
Imperial Chamber Court, Cortes in Castille, Riksdag etc are all
Historiography: Governments hampered by poor communications and rudimentary bureaucratic machines. Most rulers only enjoyed limited control over their dominions. Popular grievances
Historiography: Massive diversity in the degree of centralisation and local power. Extent of popular participation varied due to strength of external authorties and number/status o
Historiogaphy: Peasants engaged in everyday resistance against situations they deemed unfair - gossip, negotiation, petty theft, reduced effort etc. Large scale resistance is rare
Historiography: By focusing too much on riots, this only gives us an episodic history. Widely held asumption that mass politiciasation is linked to the rise of the popular press. O
Historiography: Everyone that participated in rumours, participated to some degree in the creation of a popular political discourse
Historiography: Rise of public opinion around 18th century, linked to rise of Bourgeois reading and would gather in coffee-houses to read and discuss political news
Historiography: Politics comprises all activities of co-operation and conflict
jews and Muslims depended on government support. Muslims expelled from _______ in 1482
Poor often discontent and revolted eg
Criminalisation of beggars eg 1495 Parliament passed the Vagabond Act
A common chest of Leisnig set up in Saxony, General Almonries were set up in Lyons and Rouen - examples of
Poor laws introduced - began in _______________ during 1520s
Some Catholic cities introduced poor relief schemes as well eg
Warfare eg
This had revivals in 1630s to 1670s
Growth of diseases eg (French disease)
People see less of a need for social responsibilities
English movement for the supression of profaity, immortality and other lewd activities. More from liberal attitudes to moral and censorious attitude of respectability and seriousne
Move from a barter economy towards a ___ economy
Vagrants, fraudulent beggars and harlots associated as the
Historiography: Sexual depravity, criminality and anti-social behaviour ostracised and deplored. Religious minorities often marginalised. Poor relief often came from church or priv
Historiography: Jews and Muslims largest non-Christian groups Europeans came into contact with
Historiography: Population growht, social differentiation and appeal to puritanism during this period
Historiography: Most cities had prostitutes - containment important and kept out of sight
Historiography: Poor relief schemes religiously neutral administrative responses to economic processes - population growth, urbanisation and the rise of commercial capitalism. No s
Widespread use of printing press began in early
Bible which promoted adultery
Printing of indulgences and primers eg
Papal bull in ____ tried to impose pre-publication censorship
Printing press changed the whole face and state of things throughout the world
Religious printed propaganda eg
150-200 million books printed in Europe in ____ century
By 1500, more than ____ printing shops across Europe
Historiography: Printing press brought about standardisation, diffusion and dissemination of knowledge and presevation of texts. Growing market of printing
Historiography: Printing transformed the western psyche
Historiography: National cultures and different censorship policies meant no European -wide printing culture
Historiography: (Contemporary) Praised printing as outshining any acheivement of the anciets. The idea that the protestant reformation was drivien by economic and political forces
Historiography: 'For most people throughout most of history, books had audiences rather than readers and were better heard than see'
Around ____ of the European population lived in rural areas
Heavier areas of trade such as __________ were much more urbanised
Low Seed ratio and productiviy ceiling limited energy resources of the countryside
Growth of industries eg
Growing political agency in local government eg
Growing capability for resistance - defending 'ancient law' but evidence of religious fervour in.....
5-20% of the countries were
More skilled and specialised jobs in towns eg
Trade routes important, created big ports eg
Arable farming involves
Pastoral farming involves
Rising market economy with specific markets eg
Increaed frequency of
New grain-producin settlemts in
This caused frequent harvest failures and plague outbreaks
Majority of labour force worked in agriculture. In 1700, still 70% in ______
Mortality rates almost ____ in urban areas compared to rural areas
Material culture includes items that aren't related to
Historiography: Cities were signifiers and promoters of change
Historiography: Cities weren't always modernising (Witches in lrge towns) Rich and poor lived in close proximity. Patterns of life very different. Degree of autonomy in cities. Mor
Historiography: Reformation an urban event
Historiography: Subsistence extremely important
Historiography: Lower classes were influenced by the ideal of need
Historiography: Marxist thesis of a 'General Crisis' in the 17th century to explain origins of modern capitalism. Growth of the feudal capitalist economy, the home market, the east

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