Science Quiz / Viral Infections of the GI Tract

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Can you name the Viral Infections of the GI Tract ?

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Acute diarrheal disease kills up to 5-10 million children/year (>10-20,000/day). Viral infections make up ~___ % of that number.
The majority of cases of viral gastroenteritis include
____, a rotavirus-encoded protein, is a viral enterotoxin that induces secretion by triggering a phospholipase C-dependent calcium signaling pathway.
Sporadic gastroenteritis in infants, which is most frequently caused by _____
Rotavirus: Children can have from 10-20 bowel movements/day, and as a consequence, develop severe ______.
Invasive bacteria act primarily in the colon (Shigella and Campylobacter) or lower ileum (Salmonella). The stool in these diseases may contain ____ and leukocytes.
Norovirus pathogenesis: Infected persons can shed virus even during asymptomatic infection, or after ____ infection resolves.
The most common cause of outbreaks of non-bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, and a common cause of sporadic gastroenteritis.
Virus activates of parasympathetic nerves of the gut, increasing peristalsis and secretion of fluids and solutes.
Incubation period 1-3 days; illness lasts 4-5 days with low-grade fever, watery, bloodless diarrhea and vomiting, anorexia, abdominal cramps.
In the pathology of enteric viruses and infection of intestinal epithelium, Leukocytes, blood or mucus are mostly undetectable in _____
Non-enveloped, segmented ds RNA virus. Virion possesses an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase
Norovirus transmission includes fecal-oral route, direct contact with contaminated surfaces, and ______ transmission from vomiting.
Members of the Reoviridae family
Worldwide the most common cause of viral GI infections, esp. in developing countries (>110 million cases, with >500-600,000 deaths per year). Accounts for one third of hospitalizat
Outbreaks or epidemic gastroenteritis, which occurs either in semi-closed communities (families, institutions, ships, vacation spots) or as a result of classic food-borne or water-
Loss of villus tissue leads to intestinal malabsorption with ______ diarrhea resulting from the transit of mono- and disaccharides and carbohydrates in the intestinal lumen.
Populations at risk for norovirus include restaurant patrons, children in developing and industrialized nations, and travelers to developing nations and ____ ship passengers.
Symptoms: “stomach flu”; sudden onset of diarrhea (more common in adults) and/or vomiting, abdominal cramps, nausea, anorexia, malaise, prostration, low-grade fever, myalgia, h
Treatment: Oral rehydration. In cases of severe dehydration, IV solutions can be used.
Rotavirus diarrhea is thus multifactorial, with malabsorption and _____ components.
Vaccine: Live attenuated oral vaccines (Rotateq and Rotarix) are safe and 85-100% effective.
Non-enveloped ssRNa virus. Acid resistant. Have a 'cup-like' indentations on virion surface.
Mainly affects infants, but adults appear to be susceptible as well. Virtually all children in the US are infected by age 4.
New epidemic strains arise as antigenic ____ occurs in the viral capsid protein.
Sporadic acute gastroenteritis of _____, which is most likely caused by caliciviruses, rotaviruses, astroviruses, or adenoviruses.
In general, enterotoxigenic bacteria and viruses affect the ____ bowel, causing watery (NOT inflammatory) diarrhea and periumbilical pain.
Spread by fecal-oral route or via aerosols; shellfish-, food- or water-borne outbreaks described, especially in institutional settings (restaurants, nursing homes, schools and crui

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