Originally the Kingdom of Israel, it was split into Israel in the north and Judah in the south in 860 BCE.
Previous kingdom is destroyed and becomes a vassal state in the Assyrian Empire with its capital at Jerusalem.
Babylon replaces the previous empire. Nebuchadnezzar II conquers Judah and takes thousands of Jews captive.
Persia conquers the previous rulers; King Cyrus frees Israelite captives.
Alexander the Great conquers the previous rulers; chaos ensued after his death.
320-315, 312, 301-200 BCE
An empire of the Diadochi, or Successors, set up by Ptolemy I in Egypt.
315-312, 312-301 BCE
An empire of the Diadochi, or Successors, set up by Antigonus I in Syria.
An empire of the Diadochi, or Successors, set up by Seleucus I in Mesopotamia.
167-164, 140-63 BCE
The Maccabean revolt did not result in prolonged success, but when their overlords were weakened in 140 the native Israelites took advantage.
63 BCE-260 CE, 271-395 CE
Israel becomes the province of Iudaea as an autonomous state.
A splinter state of Rome during the Crisis of the Third Century with it's capital at Palmyra.
395-614, 628-636 CE
The only peaceful change of power in Israel's history: previous rulers are replaced by the Eastern Roman Empire.
Taken by the Sassanids, given back to the previous rulers as peace terms.
The second Muslim Caliphate led by Umar the Great, Muhammad's right hand man, after the death of Muhammad in 632 CE.
A civil war (the First Fitna) erupts bewteen the various emirs. The Umayyad Caliphate emerges victorious.
750-878, 904-939 CE
The previous caliphate crumbles and the strongest of the different emirates became the Abbasids.
Ahmad ibn Tulun, ruler of Egypt, declares independence from the dominant caliphate and seizes the Syria and the Holy Land.
Muhammad ibn Tughj al-Ikshidid is given autonomous rule over Egypt and the Holy Land by their overlords.
969-1073, 1098-1099 CE
Yet another caliphate rises to power in Egypt, this time the Fatimids who became the primary regional power in Egypt for many years until the Mamluk revolts.
The Seljuk Empire replaces the previous rulers as the dominant power. The Seljuks, because of their constant fighting with the Byzantines, had a dislike for Christians. As a result, Christians were expelled from Jerusalem. The Crusades were formed in 1095 to retake the Holy Land from the Turkish infidels.
Before the Crusaders reached Jerusalem, the land changes hands between previous rulers once again. The new rulers had treated the Jews well in the past, and so the Jews fought alongside them against the Crusaders. They were unsuccessful.
The great general Salah'al-Din, better known as Saladin, carves out a an empire in the Holy Land.
1260 CE, 1300 CE
The Mongols raided and captured Jerusalem and the surrounding lands twice - in 1260 and 1300 - but never controlled the land more than a few months.
1260-1300, 1300-1516 CE
As Saracen and Crusader power in the region waned, the Mamluks in Egypt filled the power vacuum in the Levant.
Under Selim I the Ottomans absorbed the Egyptian-held lands.
The previous rulers were defeated by the British in the Battle of Jerusalem in World War I. The British general entered the city on foot out of respect.
The Jordanians controlled the West Bank and the Old City of Jerusalem between the time of the invasion of Israel in 1948 and the Six Day War in 1967.
1948-1956, 1957-1967 CE
The Egyptians under President Nasser occupied and administered the Gaza Strip for two different periods; the first unofficially, the second officially. It was taken by Israel in 1967 and unoccupied in 1994.
Jewish state created by the UN Partition Plan. Consists today of the land of the State of Israel, and the West Bank and Golan Heights are occupied by Israeli Defense Forces (IDF).
Palestine declared its independence in 1988 and has been seeking UN recognition ever since.