Science Quiz / chapter 8

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various stimulating intensities and receptor thresholds.
senses have independent receptors and neural channels.
stimulus region and features that cause max response of sensory receptor.
selective awareness or perceptual receptivity.
has steady frequency of action potentials
region of “target” on skin that receives most info from thalamus.
Cortex tells thalamus to dampen some sensory info and amplify others.
absence or reduction of pain.
receptor: free nerve endings in dermis that respond to chemical stimulation, mechanical damage, and temp that produce or may produce tissue damage.
Merkel’s disc
sensory info is coded by # of APs per unit of time b/c APs are always the same size
ibuprofen/morphine/aspirin block nociception at the source.
Meissner’s corpuscle
receives directly from primary. Outer region on “target” on skin
receptor: pressure, stretch, vibration. Cell membrane is physically distorted and ion channels open.
receptors found on C fibers (unmyelinated) detect high heat
decrease freq of action potentials as stimulus is maintained.
progressive loss of receptor sensitivity
interconnected neurons inhibit neighbors to enhance perception of stimulus.
each afferent nerve input reports particular type of info using a type of energy.
info from body (position, movements, pressure, pain, temp, vibration)
3 Components of pain
receives info of both sides of the body directly from S1
receptors found on Aδ fibers (myelinated) detect moderate heat and capsaicin
electrical pulses through skin to excite nerves and the release of endogenous opiods to block afferent pain signal
free nerve endings send axons to dorsal horn of spinal cord, spinal cord neurons send their axons across to opp side of spinal cord and up the anterolateral columns to the thalamus
receives touch info from opp side of body. Behind central sulcus. Has 3 areas
Ruffini’s ending
Pacinian corpuscle
receptor: ion channels open to specific temps
3 tracts of anterolateral system
skin innervated by particular spinal root.
receptors found on C fibers (unmyelinated) detect temp drop and menthol
emotional response of pain in posterior cingulated, observed pain response in anterior cingulate
info from other parts of body invade unused area and activate unused pathways.

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