History Quiz / NAQT Russian Tsars

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Can you name these Russian Tsars?

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Scholars differ on whether he was literate and on how auspiciously his reign began
became more reactionary after an attempted 1866 assassination and was assassinated in 1881.

introduced a system of local governing bodies called zemstvos
best known for his wars with Napoleon (first as an ally and then as an enemy)
invited Western artisans to come to Russia, required the boyars to shave their beards and wear Western clothing, and even founded a new capital, St. Petersburg--his 'window on the
dispatched several claimants to the throne and crushed a peasant uprising led by Emilian Pugachev.
was a grandnephew of Ivan the Terrible's 'good' wife Anastasia and the son of a powerful churchman named Filaret (who soon became patriarch)
is famous both for his push for Westernization and for his boisterous personality
wasn't really a Russian at all and was chosen as the bride of the future Peter III
increased censorship, tightened controls on Russia's universities, created a position of 'land captain' to exert state control in the countryside
corresponded with Enlightenment philosophes
had his own son executed
died in the midst of growing unrest and is now best known as the subject of a Pushkin play and a Mussorgsky opera.

was proclaimed Grand Prince of Muscovy 1533 and tsar in 1547
his Russian nickname ('Groznyi') could be more accurately translated as 'awe-inspiring' or 'menacing.'
known for his loving marriage to Alexandra
lovers included Grigorii Potemkin
the last of the Romanovs
could also be violent and cruel: he personally participated in the torture of the streltsy, or musketeers, who rebelled against him,
abdicated in 1917 and was shot in 1918.

eventually became unstable: he temporarily abdicated in 1564, killed his favorite son
began his career as a boyar in Ivan the Terrible's oprichnina
oversaw the partition of Poland
took the throne in 1801 when his repressive father Paul was assassinated
allowing the crazed monk Grigorii Rasputin to influence court politics
His government pursued a policy of Official Nationality, defending a holy trinity of 'Autocracy, Orthodoxy, and Nationality,'
Contemporaries referred to him as the 'Gendarme of Europe' after he helped the Habsburgs squelch the Hungarian Revolution of 1848.

led his country through two disastrous wars, the Russo-Japanese War (which helped spark the Revolution of 1905), and World War I (which helped cause the 1917 revolutions.)
he has usually been seen as a nonentity dominated by Filaret and other relatives
created a state-within-the-state called the oprichnina to wage war on the boyars
increase the rule of law in the court system, eased censorship
participated in the torture of his enemies
encouraged or ignored the first anti-Jewish pogroms.

In 1613, near the end of the Time of Troubles, a zemskii sobor elected the 16-year-old
granted charters of rights and obligations to the nobility and the towns
Under him, the state enacted a series of Temporary Regulations (giving it the power to crack down on terrorism)
plunge the country into the subsequent period of civil strife known as the 'Time of Troubles.'
She had thoroughly Russianized herself by the time Peter became tsar, and soon had him deposed
was elected tsar when Fyodor (Ivan’s son) died in 1598
first cemented his influence by marrying a daughter of one of Ivan's court favorites and arranging his sister Irina's marriage to Ivan's son Fyodor
launched his program of 'counter-reforms.'
ruled Russia from the failure of the Decembrist Uprising to the middle of the Crimean War
He also led his country in the Great Northern War (in which Charles XII of Sweden was defeated at Poltava)
an incapable monarch who helped bring about the end of the tsarist state
was rumored to have arranged the murder of Fyodor's brother Dmitrii
established a repressive secret police force known as the Third Section
, ruled until his overthrow in the February Revolution of 1917.
Some even say that he didn't really die in 1825: instead, they argue, he faked his own death, became a hermit, and died in a monastery in 1864
created a Table of Ranks for the nobility
embarked on a program of Great Reforms soon after taking the throne near the end of the Crimean War
pushed through a series of well-received reforms and called a zemskii sobor (or 'assembly of the land')
His Grand Embassy to Europe enabled him to learn about Western life (and even to work in a Dutch shipyard)
election marked the return of relative stability and the succession of the Romanov dynasty

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