Science Quiz / Geologic Terms

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Can you name the Geologic Terms?

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compression of belt of Earth's crust to form a mountain chain
loose rock material that forms a sloping mass where a stream emerges into a plain or valley
body of ice that lies wholly or largely on land and shows evidence of flowing under influence of gravity
igneous rocks crystallized at great depth
theory that suggests disasters are the cause of past geologic change
layering visible in rocks that results from the settling of particles during deposition
alluvial deposit built out into a body of water by a stream
shallow pond or lake on the edge of the ocean but separated
mechanical and chemical breakdown of rocks at the Earth's surface
most widely distributed and common rock-forming mineral, made of silicon dioxide
the upper surface of the saturated zone within bedrock
rocks altered due to increased temperature and pressure
area of Great Plains where drought and farming practices led to severe erosion in the 1930s
hard red soil that results from intense chemical weathering of surface in tropical regions
study of remnant magnetism or record of Earth's past magnetic field
describes igneous rocks crystallized at the surface
removal and transport of fragments and particles of weathered rock
mud rock that yields oil by distillation
law that implies a vertical sequence of sediments will be the product of a series of environments that lay adjacent laterally
sedimetary rock aggregate made of skeletons of organisms below ocean surface
original cloud of rotating gas and dust from which solar system was formed
varieties of an element with different numbers of neutrons
accumulation of sediment deposited by glacier
layer of impermeable rock adjacent to one that is permeable
steeply sloping zone between the continental shelf and true ocean depths
a density current that carries sediments rapidly from deltas across the continental slope do deposit them as turbidites at the foor of the slope or on the abyssal plain
genreal term for movement of large masses by landlides, flowage, or soil creep
hypothetical single ancient supercontinent comprised of all continental crust present at time
metamorphism occurring on a regional scale, usually where plates converge
process of chemical weathering by groundwater in which minerals and rock material pass directly into solution
landform consisting of mass of sand moved by wind; moves in the direction of the wind
rocks formed by cooling and solidification of magma
mass wasting in which material moves rapidly downward and outward along surface of separation
aquifer in which the level of the discharge is lower than recharge, when penetrated, natural pressure causes water to rise
rocks formed by erosion of rocks on Earth's surface and accumulation and burial of erosion products
layer of secondary calcareous material below the surface that results from the evaporation of soil moisture which leaves behind the calcium carbonate held in solution
theory that continents move slowly over time on a deep-seated viscous zone
alteration of rocks surrounding an intrusion due to heat of intrusion
oceanic and continental part of crust and upper brittle part of mantle; it varies in thickness from 1-2km at ocean ridges to 140-160km below oceanic crust
zone that lies between core and crust, 2300km thick
depression in surface of ground often connecting to cavern or subterranean passage
theory that the ocean floor is created at divergent plate boundaries as plates are moved by mantle convection
form of bedding in which the layers are arranged at an agle to depostional surface
theory that draws together continental drift and seafloor spreading into a theory of evolution of Earth's surface
angle at which loose material will stand without sliding
substance usually inorganic that has a crystalline structure that can be used to identify it, these compose rocks
cyclic connection between three groups of rock
compound of only hydrogen and carbon, such as natural gas and petroleum
widespread rock-forming mineral composed of calcium carbonate, major constituent of limestones
condition of balance within the Earth's crust by which mountain chains are balanced by extensive roots, like a floating iceberg
outermost layer of the solid Earth; varies in thickness from 5km below oceans to 60km below mountains
area where subsurface waters are emitted into streams or lakes
homogenous ordered solid having naturally formed faces and limited chemical composition
idea that processes operating now on Earth's surface also operated in the past
arch-shaped fold in rock in which oldest rocks are at the core
mass of molten rock that when cooled forms igneous rock
silicate minerals, often black or dark green, that occur in igneous and metamorphic rocks
gently sloping zone of shallowly submerged land that surrounds continents
system that consits of the sun and planets, satellites, and astroids that rotate around it
molten rock resulting from eruption of volcano
small planetary body accreted from solar nebula
type of landform in areas underlain by easily dissolved limestones, solution passages and caves result and spires of limestone may be left
boundary between two crustal plates that are moving away from each other
intrusive igneous rock formed of quartz, feldspar, and mica
shallow lake occupying the lowest part of enclosed basin
subsurface water in the zone of saturation; present below the water table
hot material rising through mantle at 'hot spots'
small extraterrestrial bodies that enter that atmosphere and land on Earth's surface
accumulations of loose particles of organic and inorganic material that are precursors of sedimentary rocks
process where sediments are converted to solid rock by compaction and cementation
measure of volume of rock consists of space
weak zone in upper mantle under the lithosphere
group of sheet-silicate materials with a platy appearance
reservoir for oil in which the volatiles have escaped, and sediment is impregnated with residue
stream in which large numbers of sand bars cause the stream to flow as a series of separating and uniting channels
boundary between two crustal plates moving toward each other
process by which material is removed by solution and replaced, can occur atom by atom so that structure is retained
sediments resulting from deposition of material due to annual seasonal influences; in glacial lake sediments, a lower, coaser layer in the summer and a finer layer in the winter
rock formed from a rapidly cooling magma extruded on the Earth's surface
iron-magnesium-silicate mineral in many igneous rocks
unconsolidated and unsorted sediments depositied directly by ice
sub-planar rock fabric formed by preferred orientation of platy minerals
system of organizing geological events usually presented in the form of a chart; subdivision of geologic time
process by which dense oceanic crust material is overridden by lighter continental crust and sinks into mantle
position of rock formation exposed on the surface of the ground
measure of how easily water passes through rock
widespread silicate minerals found in many igneous and metamorphic rocks
rock formed by slowly crystallizing magma deep within the crust
group of alumno-silicate minerals essential to formation of igneous rocks
central part of the Earth, composed of a nickel-iron mixture divided into inner solid and outer liquid parts
study of surface features on the Earth and their evolution
plane within rocks along which movement has occurred
a layered structure often forming mounds built up over a long period of time by mats of cyanobacteria that trap sediment
regional metamorphic rock with a coarse texture and a planar fabric
area that acts as a catchment for an aquifer
a deposit formed of suspended mateial picked up by a storm
island formed of coral circular in shape with a central lagoon
fine-grained extrusive igneous rock made of feldspar and pyroxene

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