Science Quiz / Geologic Terms

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Can you name the Geologic Terms?

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DefinitionTerm
compound of only hydrogen and carbon, such as natural gas and petroleum
steeply sloping zone between the continental shelf and true ocean depths
body of ice that lies wholly or largely on land and shows evidence of flowing under influence of gravity
layer of secondary calcareous material below the surface that results from the evaporation of soil moisture which leaves behind the calcium carbonate held in solution
hypothetical single ancient supercontinent comprised of all continental crust present at time
theory that draws together continental drift and seafloor spreading into a theory of evolution of Earth's surface
theory that suggests disasters are the cause of past geologic change
theory that continents move slowly over time on a deep-seated viscous zone
angle at which loose material will stand without sliding
boundary between two crustal plates moving toward each other
sediments resulting from deposition of material due to annual seasonal influences; in glacial lake sediments, a lower, coaser layer in the summer and a finer layer in the winter
original cloud of rotating gas and dust from which solar system was formed
rock formed by slowly crystallizing magma deep within the crust
compression of belt of Earth's crust to form a mountain chain
theory that the ocean floor is created at divergent plate boundaries as plates are moved by mantle convection
mass wasting in which material moves rapidly downward and outward along surface of separation
substance usually inorganic that has a crystalline structure that can be used to identify it, these compose rocks
sub-planar rock fabric formed by preferred orientation of platy minerals
oceanic and continental part of crust and upper brittle part of mantle; it varies in thickness from 1-2km at ocean ridges to 140-160km below oceanic crust
molten rock resulting from eruption of volcano
fine-grained extrusive igneous rock made of feldspar and pyroxene
the upper surface of the saturated zone within bedrock
system of organizing geological events usually presented in the form of a chart; subdivision of geologic time
mass of molten rock that when cooled forms igneous rock
cyclic connection between three groups of rock
reservoir for oil in which the volatiles have escaped, and sediment is impregnated with residue
hard red soil that results from intense chemical weathering of surface in tropical regions
igneous rocks crystallized at great depth
a density current that carries sediments rapidly from deltas across the continental slope do deposit them as turbidites at the foor of the slope or on the abyssal plain
rocks altered due to increased temperature and pressure
condition of balance within the Earth's crust by which mountain chains are balanced by extensive roots, like a floating iceberg
rocks formed by cooling and solidification of magma
removal and transport of fragments and particles of weathered rock
DefinitionTerm
law that implies a vertical sequence of sediments will be the product of a series of environments that lay adjacent laterally
measure of volume of rock consists of space
rock formed from a rapidly cooling magma extruded on the Earth's surface
idea that processes operating now on Earth's surface also operated in the past
measure of how easily water passes through rock
process by which dense oceanic crust material is overridden by lighter continental crust and sinks into mantle
silicate minerals, often black or dark green, that occur in igneous and metamorphic rocks
study of remnant magnetism or record of Earth's past magnetic field
alteration of rocks surrounding an intrusion due to heat of intrusion
arch-shaped fold in rock in which oldest rocks are at the core
most widely distributed and common rock-forming mineral, made of silicon dioxide
metamorphism occurring on a regional scale, usually where plates converge
group of alumno-silicate minerals essential to formation of igneous rocks
layer of impermeable rock adjacent to one that is permeable
small planetary body accreted from solar nebula
plane within rocks along which movement has occurred
intrusive igneous rock formed of quartz, feldspar, and mica
study of surface features on the Earth and their evolution
hot material rising through mantle at 'hot spots'
island formed of coral circular in shape with a central lagoon
describes igneous rocks crystallized at the surface
stream in which large numbers of sand bars cause the stream to flow as a series of separating and uniting channels
process of chemical weathering by groundwater in which minerals and rock material pass directly into solution
varieties of an element with different numbers of neutrons
sedimetary rock aggregate made of skeletons of organisms below ocean surface
type of landform in areas underlain by easily dissolved limestones, solution passages and caves result and spires of limestone may be left
area of Great Plains where drought and farming practices led to severe erosion in the 1930s
accumulation of sediment deposited by glacier
unconsolidated and unsorted sediments depositied directly by ice
shallow lake occupying the lowest part of enclosed basin
widespread silicate minerals found in many igneous and metamorphic rocks
central part of the Earth, composed of a nickel-iron mixture divided into inner solid and outer liquid parts
mud rock that yields oil by distillation
DefinitionTerm
widespread rock-forming mineral composed of calcium carbonate, major constituent of limestones
form of bedding in which the layers are arranged at an agle to depostional surface
depression in surface of ground often connecting to cavern or subterranean passage
system that consits of the sun and planets, satellites, and astroids that rotate around it
alluvial deposit built out into a body of water by a stream
iron-magnesium-silicate mineral in many igneous rocks
regional metamorphic rock with a coarse texture and a planar fabric
process by which material is removed by solution and replaced, can occur atom by atom so that structure is retained
subsurface water in the zone of saturation; present below the water table
zone that lies between core and crust, 2300km thick
aquifer in which the level of the discharge is lower than recharge, when penetrated, natural pressure causes water to rise
landform consisting of mass of sand moved by wind; moves in the direction of the wind
a deposit formed of suspended mateial picked up by a storm
gently sloping zone of shallowly submerged land that surrounds continents
process where sediments are converted to solid rock by compaction and cementation
homogenous ordered solid having naturally formed faces and limited chemical composition
outermost layer of the solid Earth; varies in thickness from 5km below oceans to 60km below mountains
small extraterrestrial bodies that enter that atmosphere and land on Earth's surface
genreal term for movement of large masses by landlides, flowage, or soil creep
area where subsurface waters are emitted into streams or lakes
position of rock formation exposed on the surface of the ground
boundary between two crustal plates that are moving away from each other
accumulations of loose particles of organic and inorganic material that are precursors of sedimentary rocks
group of sheet-silicate materials with a platy appearance
weak zone in upper mantle under the lithosphere
a layered structure often forming mounds built up over a long period of time by mats of cyanobacteria that trap sediment
area that acts as a catchment for an aquifer
shallow pond or lake on the edge of the ocean but separated
mechanical and chemical breakdown of rocks at the Earth's surface
loose rock material that forms a sloping mass where a stream emerges into a plain or valley
layering visible in rocks that results from the settling of particles during deposition
rocks formed by erosion of rocks on Earth's surface and accumulation and burial of erosion products

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