Science Quiz / Name that algorithm

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Special case of best-first search that uses heuristics to improve speed
Sort the first and second half of the list separately, then merge the sorted lists
Computes shortest paths in a weighted graph (where some of the edge weights may be negative)
Solves the all pairs shortest path problem in a weighted, directed graph
Finds the most likely sequence of hidden states in a hidden markov model
Provides exponential speedup (relative to currently known non-quantum algorithms) for factoring a number
State space search traversing a game tree in a best-first fashion similar to that of the A* search algorithm
Search to reduce number of nodes in minimax algorithm
Probabilistic metaheuristic for the global optimization problem of locating a good approximation to the global minimum of a given function in a large search space
Developed in 1977, is the third of a series of algorithms used for the solution of constraint satisfaction problems
An optimal output-sensitive algorithm to compute the convex hull of a set P of n points, in 2 or 3 dimensional space
Converts the list into a heap, keeps removing the largest element from the heap and adding it to the end of the list
An algorithm in graph theory that finds a minimum spanning tree for a connected weighted graph
A non-secure hash function designed to detect accidental changes to raw computer data, and is commonly used in digital networks and storage devices such as hard disk drives
Generates a sequence of samples from the joint probability distribution of two or more random variables
A computational approach to the problem of comparing models in Bayesian statistics
A keyed, symmetric block cipher, designed in 1993 by Bruce Schneier and included in a large number of cipher suites and encryption products
A method for classifying objects based on closest training examples in the feature space

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