'Large' particle composed of quarks held together via the strong force; includes neutrons and protons

The sum of all kinetic and potential energy of a system

Method of determining the energies of a quantum system by iterating the wavefunctions until the result is 'self-consistent'

Dutch scientist whose namesake principle states that light radiates with a spherical wavefront

Any integer multiple of the fundamental frequency of a system

unit of frequency equal to one inverse second

Constant which quantizes the amounts of angular momentum in a quantum system; also called the reduced Planck constant

Process in which a dying star explodes as it reignites fusion due to increased pressure

The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a material by 1 degree Kelvin

Astronomical graph showing the evolution of stars based on their mass and brightness

Phenomenon in which a property of a system depends on its past states; exemplified by the retention of magnetic properties in ferromagnets

Class of orthogonal functions used to characterize the energy levels of a quantum harmonic oscillator's wavefunction

The time period in which the amount of radioactive matter in a material will decrease by 50 percent

English scientist who reformulated the modern vector versions of Maxwell's Equations and who lends his name to the 'step function'

Potential which gives the amount of useful work extracted from a thermodynamic system

Quasiparticle that can be created by the moving of an electron across the band gap in a semiconductor

The mathematical inner-product space in which wavefunctions 'live' in quantum mechanics

It is impossible to simultaneously measure the position and momentum of a quantum object with perfect accuracy

The 'god particle' which the Standard Model predicts to play a role in giving matter its mass

A 'constant' which measures the degree at which the universe is expanding

The amount of gas that dissolves in a volume of liquid is directly proportional to the liquid's partial pressure

Hypothesis that the nature of space is encoded onto a boundary of lesser dimension

Region of the solar system dominated by charged solar particles decelerating due to interactions with the interstellar medium

Modern physicist known for his work on the thermodynamics of black holes and for penning 'A Brief History of Time'

Process in which charge carriers in a conducting sheet are deflected by a magnetic field creating a voltage difference perpendicular to the current

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