Science Quiz / The Main Orders in Actinopterygii

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QUIZ: Can you name the Main Orders in Actinopterygii?

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Forced Order
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Important SynapomorphiesClassExample
Ganoid scale, two gular plates, double ventral lungs, lobe-like finsbirchirs and reedfish
Cartilaginous skeleton, ganoid scales, unique protrusible jaw suspensionsturgeons and paddlefish
Elongated and amored body, ganoid scales, highly vascularized swim bladdergars
Exceptionally bony head, single gular platebowfins
Swim bladder extends up into braincase and touches inner ear, typically have bony scutes on ventral surfaceherring and anchovies
No adipose fin, forked tail, jaws and palate are always toothlessminnows, barbs and suckers
Adipose fin, well developed teeth on jaws and palate, replacement dentition, and ctenoid scalestetras, piranhas
Fusion of skull bones, teeth on roof of mouth, adipose fin, barbels on upper and lower jawcatfish
Adipose fin, lack of spiny rays on all fins, pelvic axillary process, swim bladder connected to gut, vertical barring on youngsalmon, trout
Important SynapomorphiesClassExample
Lack adipose fin, dorsal and anal fins are located posteriorly, forked caudal fin, slightly elongated and flattened snoutpikes
Long dorsal fin often divided into two or three parts, three dorsal spines, two anal spinescods, haddocks, pollocks
Rounded caudal fin, pectoral fin insertion ventrolateral, upper jaw is bordered only by premaxillaguppies, killifishes
Generally small, dermal armor plates, small mouths, interesting propulsionseahorses, pipefish
Spines projecting from different bones on the head and bodylionfish, rockfish
Fin spines, dorsal fin divided into two parts, no adipose fin, swim bladder not connected to gutsunfish, basses, perch
Asymetry, both eyes on same side of head, flat bodyflatfishes
Pelvic fins often lost, slow swimmers, covered in thick leathery skin, scales modified into spines or bony platesboxfish, puffers, triggerfish
Lack pelvic fins, usually scaless and predetory, long bodytrue eels

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