the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have forseen it

a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment

a testable prediction

repeating the essence of a research study to determine if basic findings extend to other circumstances

a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data

a research method that examines one person in hopes of revealing things true of us all

the group that is exposed to the treatment in an experiment

a research method used to estimate the attitudes of a whole population from a sample of people

a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together

observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to control the situation

a type of sample in which every person in the entire group has an equal chance of participating

the perception of a relationship where none exists

a research method that enables a researcher to focus on the effects of one or more factors by manipulating the factors of interest and controlling other factors

the arithmetic average of a distribution

experimental results caused by expectations alone

the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution

the postexperimental explanation of a study to its participants

Hint

Answer

a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance

a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score

the experimental factor that is manipulated

the most frequently occurring score in a distribution

a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents values of two variables

an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behavior

assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance

all the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn

an experiment in which both the participants and researchers are ignorant about the treatment applied

thinking that involves examining assumptions, discerning hidden values, evaluating evidence, and assessing conclusions

the group not exposed to treatment in an experiment

the middle score in a distribution

an ethical principle that participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate

the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable

a statistical index of the relationship between two things (from -1 to +1)

a statement of the procedures used to define research variables

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