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Can you name the Psychology AS Rsearch Methods used??

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Advantage: Allows research where IV cannot be manipulated for practical or ethical reasons
Compares behaviour in different cultures
Disadvantage: Answers are less natural
Advantage: Produces a rich source of information dicussing what the interviewee feels is important
Observer notes behaviour and events that they believe to be important as they occur. Not planned
Type of Observation - Disadvantage: Unreliable because the researcher has to rely on memory
Disadvantage: No flexibility so information gained is more narrow
This type of research could be used to look at the effects of smoking on ill health
Advantage: Less chance for the bias of interviewer to affect results
Disadvantage: Attrition - people who drop out are more likely to have particular characteristics, so leaves a biased sample
Conducted in a natural environment, and change in IV is also 'natural'
A type of informal interview
Disadvantage: Difficult to replicate and comapre one interview with another
Advantage: Data can be collected from a large number of people quickly and cheaply
Are exploratory stuides, usually with no hypothesis
Disadvantage: When people feel they are being asked a set list of questions, they do not reply as freely or fully as they would in a less structured situation
Advantage: Variables are carefully controlled giving higher internal validity
Disadvantage: More than one variable will alter so difficult to isolate the effects of one variable
Disadvantage: Many extraneous variables which are a threat to validity
Advantage: Data analysis is easier than non-directional interview because questionning is more systematic
Advantage: Analysing the results from a group of studies can allow more reliable conclusions to be drawn.
Type of Observation - Disadvantage: Increase in particpant reactivity and demand characteristics because partipants know they are being studied
The interviewee can talk about anything they want and the psychologist has no direct influence
Advantage: Easily replicated interview
Disadvantage: Cannot develop casual relationships because IV is not manipulated by researcher
There may be a list of topics to be covered, but it is up to the interviwer how to phrase each question and which order to ask them
Type of Observation - Disadvantage: If particpants are unaware they are being observed, this raises the ethical issue of lack of informed consent
There are two types: naturalistic and controlled
Is used to make comparisms between the same individuals at different ages
Have an overall aim, but approached differently with each intervieweer
Disadvantage: Extraneous variables harder to control so reduces internal validity
Rsearcher observes participants in an environment where they can exercise some control
Advantage: Interviewee should feel relaxed
Can be used as part of a lab experiment
A detailed investigation of an individual or small group
Advantage: May contradict the predictions of a well-established theory
May involve doing artifical tasks, which means the behaviour of the participants may not reflect everyday life
Disadvantage: Non-stanardised questions: wording of questions may create different interpretations/emphasis
Researcher observes behaviour in participant's own environment
Disadvantage: If retrospective, recollections may be inaccurate
Can be used as part of a natural experiment but not as part of a lab experiment
Has the least ecological validity
Advantage: Different interviewers can all use the same interview schedule
There is no IV or DV, but it is still looking at the relationship between two variables
Disadvantage: Unsystematic becuase different information will be gathered from each person
Uses a range of different methods and techniques
A pilot study should always be done first to make sure questions are understandable and produce the type of answers wanted
The same standardised procedure is followed with each interview
One group/person is focused on and no comparism is made with another group
A type of observation where participants know they are being observed
A type of observation where a researcher joins the group or takes part in the situation they are studying
Disadvantage: The interviewer's bias may influence the questions asked
Advantage: Data more easily analysed
Type of Observation - Disadvantage: Particpants may behaviour differently because they know they are being observed (particpant reactivity)
Advantage: Can quickly obtain a large amount of data, for example; by using questionnaires
A group of participants of a young age is comapred to another older group of particpants at the same point in time eg. 2008
A list of written questions
There are some open-ended questions and some where the interviewee has to reply according to categories
Conducted in a natural environment, but the IV is still controlled by the researcher
Advantage: Avoids participant effects, so increases internal validity
Disadvantage: The researcher selects what goes in the final report, and all the information gathered may not be included
Type of Observation - Advantage: Reduction of participant reactivity and demand characteristics because partipant's don't know they are being studied
Disadvantage: Particpants may be aware of the resrach aims so this may affect behaviour
Type of Observation - Advantage: Observer can record observations as they occur, making them more reliable in terms of memory
Type of Observation - Advantage: Easier to understand what the particpant's behaviour actually means
Advantage: Is less artifical so has high external validity
Advantage: Because of a large amount of data can be collected, the results can be generalised
Advantage: Can be replicated to test reliability
Advantage: People may be more willing to give personal information than in an interview
Advantage: There may be lots of contriditory research and this allows an overall conlusion to be drawn
Type of Observation - Disadvantage: The presence of the observer may change the behaviour of the particpants
Type of Observation - Disadvantage: Behaviour may not be natural, so this lowers the ecological validity of the research
Advantage: Same particpants being used so no problems with particpant variables
Advantage: Can be used where it would be unethical or unpractical to manipulate variables and can make use of existing data
Disadvantage: The sample will be biased because only certain types of people will return this type of method to you
Disadvantage: A major problem is observer bias
Type of Observation - Disadvantage: The actual meaning of the behaviour may not be clear from a distance
Disadvantage: Partcipant variables because no random allocation to conditions (2 types)
Disadvantage: The research designs in the various studies may be very varied, which means the studies are not truly comparable and the conclusions drawn are not neccesarily vailid
Type of Observation - Advantage: Rich qualitive data can be gained from the research
Focuses precisely on particular ategories of behaviour/events
Type of Observation - Disadvantage: When the observee realises that they have been observed, they may distrust psychologists in the future
Disadvantage: Social Desirability Bias: People may not tell the truth, but instead what they feel is socially acceptable
Advantage: Can highlight extradionary behaviour that can stimulate new research
Disadvantage: Can only be used where conditions occur natuirally
Major ethical issue: Confidentiality, many cases are identifiable because of unique characteristics
Type of Observation - Observer may become too emotionally involved so observations are subjective rather than obejective
Type of Observation - Advantage: The partipants will have given their consent to be observed, so there is no ethical issue of lack of informed consent
Advantage: Provides rich, qualitive data gathered from a range of sources. Information that my be overlooked using other methods is likely to be identified
Disadvantage: Partcipant effects can reduce internal validity
A study conducted over a long period of time
Disadvantage: The group of particpants (cohert) may have unique characteristics because of time-specific experiences. So, the sample of people may not be representitive of the whol
Disadvantage: No two cases are the same so cannot be repliacted to test reliability
Major ethical issue: If participants don't know they're being studied and it is difficult to debrief them, is it right to record their behaviour?
The resarcher measure the effect size (the % case where something happens)
Advantage: Can rule out a casual relationship if there is no association between the two variables
The effects of the IV on the DV are observed, but extraneous variables are much harder to control
Conducted in a laboratory
Type of Observation - Advantage: The observer is less likely to be emotionally involved with the particpants so is more likely to be objective
Combines the results of several studies that have studied similar aims/hypothesis
Advantage: Is a way of conducting preliminary investiagtions in a new area of research in a view to developing hypothesis for futher investigation
Advantage: Can investigate the behaviour of an individual in circumstances that could not possibly be engineered
A scattergraph can be using to present this data
Type of Observation - Advantage: Has high levels of ecological validity
Research usually done on students
Must be worded very carefully to produce answers that are not biased
Shows an association between two variables
A type of observation where participants are not aware they are being observed
Is often a natural experiment
Disadvanatge: Hard to establish cause and effect because there could be another variable involved
Each interviewee is asked the same questions, but the follow up questions will vary according to the replies they give to these
Sometimes called a 'quasi' experiment
Before resarch begins, behaviours to be observed are clearly defined and uses a standardised behaviour schedule to record the frequency of occurance of these behaviours
Disadvantage: Based on one individual, so cannot generalise the findings
Type of Observation - Advantage: Increases the trust between researcher and public
Type of Observation - Advantage: Partcipants may be unaware they are being observed so they may therefore behave more naturally
Disadvantage: Observer Bias - They may be subjective and 'see' what they expect to see
Participants often no not know they are taking part
Advantage: Interviewer can be flexible and it is possible to follow the participant's line of thinking
Advantage: What people say they do is often different to what they actually do, so this can measure it
A type of observation where the researcher observes from 'outside' the situation or group they are studying
Type of Observation - Advantage: Has a higher level of control over extraneous variables
Defintions of behaviours/events to be observed are clearly operationalised
Advantage: Enables us to study 'real' problems (effects of disaster on health), so increased ecological validity
Type of Observation - Disadvntage: Ethical issue of lack of informed consent
Type of Observation - Disadvantage:No control of extraneous variables
Type of Observation - Advantage: Observees may not realise they ar being observed, meaning their behaviour is not changed by the presence of the observer
Disadvantage: Difficult to analyse, and low reliability because each interview will be completely difficult

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