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are the means used to communicate data. It is carried on a communication channel as an electrical voltage, an electromagnetic radio wave or a switched light.
 
may be defined as a collection of computer programs that integrate the hardware resources of the computer and make those resources available to the user, in a way that allows the u
 
is the means used to simulate the simultaneous execution of multiple programs to provide multitasking and multi-user support. A single processor is capable of executing one instruc
 
The memory resident components of an operating system are commonly known as the __operating system
 
If the computer is attached to a network, it may obtain its programs, including the operating system, from another computer on the network. This had led to the concept of the diskl
 
provides file and I/O services, tools that create and support the graphical user interface, even tools to embed a spreadsheet into a word processing document.
 
Computer designers attempt to integrate the computer hardware and operating system, so that each supports the features of the other in such a way as to create a powerful environmen
 
Some commands are built directly into the operating system. They remain in memory for immediate access.
 
Commands that are loaded only as they are needed are called
 
Most modern operating systems provide some capability for combining computer commands into pseudo-programs, commonly called
 
Batch-oriented systems combine individual commands into a sequence of control statements, which will be interpreted and executed one at a time without user intervention to control
 
The simplest Windows scripts are commonly called .BAT files. Recent versions of Windows also include a more powerful scripting facility called__It is based on an object-oriented la
 
is generally loosely defined as a collection of related information.
 
system provides and maintains the mapping between a file’s logical storage needs and the physical location where it is stored.
 
is an executing program. It is considered the standard unit of work within a computer system. It is defined as the program, together with all of the resources that are assigned to
 
Systems provide communication capability between different processes. Processes may cooperate with each other by sending messages back and forth using ___ messaging services.
 
management keeps track of each process in memory.
 
is an individually executable part of a process. It shares memory and other resources with all other threads in the same process, but can be scheduled to run separately from other
 
The purpose of the ___ system is to load programs and program data into memory in such a way as to give each program loaded the memory everything that it requires for execution.
 
is a method of utilizing memory which includes hardware support for sophisticated memory management capability. It creates the illusion of a memory space that is potentially much l
 
is responsible for the actual selection of processes that will be executed at any given instant by the CPU.
 
Nearly every modern operating system provides means and support for manipulating multiple programs on a single CPU, a technique known as
 
The technique of switching rapidly between two programs executing a few instructions from each is called
 
processes require extensive amounts of CPU time.
 
processes require I/O operations with very little CPU processing
 
The dispatcher is also responsible for the actual transfer of control to the process that is being dispatched. This responsibility includes preservation of the previous running pro
 
multitasking, the application voluntarily gives up control of the CPU or is I/O bound.
 
multitasking, the OS uses the clock interrupt to allots a specified period of time to an application then preempts the processing to give the CPU to another application.
 
system keeps track of free secondary storage space and maintains the file system and its directories
 
system provides device drivers that actually control the transfer of data between memory and the secondary storage devices.
 
services are usually provided by the operating system to allow processes to communicate with each other without compromising the system. Each module in the operating system includ
 
is the person who is responsible for maintaining the computer system or systems.
 
The system administrator on a UNIX/Linux system can log in to the system as a ___, with privileges that override all the restrictions and security built into the system. This user
 
One of the most important system administration tasks to be performed is the creation of an operating system tailored to the specific needs of a particular installation. The proces
 
configuration of the kernel, there is no specific organization. The operating system programs simply interact as required to perform their functions. The critical functions within
 
configuration of an operating system shows the operating system divided into layers. The upper layers are the ones that are visible to the user. The middle layers comprise the majo
 
configuration constitutes a client-server system, where clients and servers reside on the same system. Operating system services outside the essential functionality are performed b
 
generally provide single-user multitasking operating systems. These systems allow the user to run several processes at the same time. Background processes can present output to the
 
are designed to manage large-scale computing resources, particularly in major enterprise environments, where large numbers of transactions are the norm. They were originally design
 
are similar to single-user multitasking systems. However, the major focus of system use is shifted from meeting the needs of the direct user to the support of clients connected to
 
are operating systems designed for small hand-held devices, such as personal digital assistants and smart phones.
 
are systems in which one or more processes must be able to access the CPU immediately when required.
 
are specialized systems designed to control a single piece of equipment, such as an automobile or microwave oven. Effectively, it is a real-time system that is dedicated to a parti
 
processing power is distributed among the computers in a cluster or network. The Internet is an example. Programs, files and databases may also be dispersed in this type of system.
 
is an OpenGroup standard that establishes a set of features for a distributed computing operating system.
 
are the means used to communicate data. It is carried on a communication channel as an electrical voltage, an electromagnetic radio wave or a switched light.
 
signal uses variable voltage to create continuous waves, resulting in an inexact transmission.
 
is a measure of an analog signal’s strength.
 
is the number of times an analog signal’s amplitude changes over a period of time.
 
is a particular stage in a periodic phenomenon or process of an analog wave.
 
is how many bits or bytes of information a cable can carry over a unit of time.
 
is a loss of signal strength as transmission travels away from the source.
 
is a measure of the amount of time a signal takes to travel from one end of the cable to the other end.
 
is interference from sources near the network cabling.
 
is a device used to strengthen an analog signal
 
is a process of retransmitting a digital signal (in the original, pure form without any noise).
 
is a device used to regenerate a digital signal.
 
converts a computer’s digital pulses into analog signals for the phone line and then converts the analog signals back into digital pulses at the receiving computer’s end.
 
uses digital signals sent over a cable without modulation. It uses repeaters to restore the signal to its original strength and quality before retransmitting it to another cable. T
 
is an analog transmission technique which may use multiple communication channels simultaneously. It uses amplifiers to detect weak signals, strengthen those signals, and then rebr
 
provides a medium across which network information can travel in the form of a physical signal, whether it is a type of electrical transmission or some sequence of light pulses.
 
is a type of cable that uses a copper conductor -- wrapped by an insulating layer, surrounded by a braided wire mesh and an outer jacket or sheath -- to carry signals such as netwo
 
is a type of coax cable that uses BNC T-connectors and BNC barrel connectors to attach directly to networking devices and computers’ network adapter cards.
 
is a type of coax cable that uses a vampire tap to attach a workstation to the cable, which in turn attaches to a transceiver. The transceiver attaches to an AUI or DIX cable that
 
consists of one or more pairs of insulated strands of copper wire twisted around one another. The importance of twisting the wire is to improve resistance to interference and to li
 
is a type of twisted-pair cabling that contains one or more pairs of insulated wires within an enclosing insulating sheath. It is prone to crosstalk on the cable.
 
occurs when signals from adjacent cables interfere with another cable’s transmission.
 
is a type of twisted-pair cabling that encloses each pair of wires within a foil shield, as well as within an enclosing insulating sheath. It supports higher bandwidth over longer
 
is a type of UTP Cabling that is rated up to 10 Mbps.
 
is a type of UTP Cabling that is rated up to 100 Mbps.
 
is a type of UTP Cabling that is rated up to 1000 Mbps and uses RJ-45 connectors.
 
The maximum segment length between the hub and a workstation of a 10BaseT Ethernet is
 
The maximum number of nodes of a 10BaseT Ethernet is __ per logical segment
 
uses pulses of light sent along a light-conducting fiber at the heart of the cable to transfer information. It consists of a slender cylinder of glass fiber(s), called the core, su
 
are a type of fiber-optic cable that include only one glass fiber at the core and work with laser-based emitters. They span the longest distances.
 
are a type of fiber-optic cable that incorporate two or more glass fibers at the core and work with light emitting diodes (LEDs). They span shorter distances.
 
The maximum segment length between the hub and a workstation of a fiber-optic cable (10BaseF) is
 
The maximum number of nodes of a 10BaseF Ethernet is __ per logical segment.
 
Wireless LANs have similar components to wired counterparts. The network interface attaches to an antenna and emitter rather than to cable and connectors. A wireless network requir
 
frequencies carry more data faster over shorter distances.
 
frequencies carry less data more slowly over longer distances.
 
is a kind of infrared LAN that requires a clear view between the transmitter and the receiver.
 
is a kind of infrared LAN that uses optical transceivers to send signals to the hub and then forwards the signal to the intended recipient.
 
is a kind of infrared LAN that bounces transmissions off walls & ceilings.
 
is a kind of Radio LAN Technology that does not require a clear line-of-sight between sender and receiver. It works on a single frequency and is highly susceptible to eavesdropping
 
is a kind of Radio LAN Technology that uses multiple frequencies simultaneously. It improves reliability and reduces susceptibility to interference. It also makes eavesdropping mor
 
is a kind of Spread-spectrum LAN Technology that switches data among multiple frequencies at regular intervals. It requires a synchronized transmitter and receiver.
 
is a kind of Spread-spectrum LAN Technology that breaks data into fixed-size segments called chips and transmits on several different frequencies simultaneously.
 
connect networks up to three miles apart using line-of-sight or broadcast transmissions. Longer-range ones work at distances up to 25 miles using spread-spectrum transmissions.
 
known as WiMax (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) promises wireless broadband to outlying areas. The promise is 70 Mbps at up to a distance of 30 miles. It is refer
 
provide higher transmission rates than radio-based systems. It requires a clear line-of-sight between transmitters and receivers. They are two types of these technologies.
 
microwave signals require a clear line of sight between the transmitter and receiver. Transmitters and receivers are mounted on tall buildings or mountaintops. They use tight-beam,
 
is a form of wireless networking that uses common carrier frequencies to permit networked devices to be moved freely within the broadcast coverage area yet remain connected to the
 
is the wireless IEEE networking standard.
 
was a wireless non-IEEE networking standard
 
is an IEEE wireless networking standard that transmits at 2.4 GHz and sends data up to 11 Mbps. The maximum distance of data transmission is 300 feet. Effectively, data transmissio
 
is an IEEE wireless networking standard that transmits at 5.0 GHz and sends data up to 54 Mbps. The maximum distance of data transmission is 60 feet. Effectively you won’t see da
 
is an IEEE wireless networking standard that transmits at 2.4 GHz and operates at speeds up to 54 Mbps. The maximum distance of data transmission is 300 feet. It uses both OFDM &
 
is an IEEE wireless networking standard that can transmit at both 2.4 GHz and 5.0 GHz. It adds multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) and 40 MHz channels (twice the previous 20 MHz
 
is a technology which uses multiple antennas to coherently resolve more information than possible using a single antenna.
 
Another ability that MIMO technology provides is __. It spatially multiplexes multiple independent data streams, transferred simultaneously within one spectral channel of bandwidth
 
was a non-IEEE wireless networking standard that communicates on a frequency of 2.4 GHz for data transmission rates of 1 Mbps. The maximum distance of data transmission is 30 feet.
 
The Bluetooth device that discovers the other is called a master. The Bluetooth device discovered is the slave. Bluetooth determines whether they have data to share or whether one
 
use short-range networking technology to connect personal computing and communication devices. It includes devices that the user wears or comes in close contact with, i.e., cell ph
 

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