355 or 370 - 415; Greek

philosopher, astronomer, mathematician

_{Head of School of Alexandria; Murdered by a crowd incited by St. Cyril of Alexandria; Invented the plane astrolabe, the graduated brass hydrometer and the hydroscope}

1646 -1684; Italian (Venice)

mathematician, theologian, musician, philosopher

_{First woman to receive a doctorate; Lecturer in Mathematics at the University of Padua (from which she had received her degree)}

1718 - 1799; Italian (Milan)

mathematician, philosopher, philanthropist

_{Famous 'Witch'; Wrote first mathematics book by a woman that still survives, which was the first text to describe both Newton's and Liebnitz's methods; First woman appointed as a mathematics professor at a university}

1776 - 1830; French

mathematician, number theorist, mathematical physicist

_{École Polytechnique allowed her to have lecture notes, and she corresponded with professors under the pseudonym, 'M. le Blanc'; Made partial progress on a proof of Fermat's Last Theorem; First woman allowed to attend sessions at the Institut de France}

1780 - 1872; Scottish and British

mathematician, scientist, astronomer, geographer

_{'Queen of Nineteenth Century Science;' Co-discoverer of Neptune; First woman (along with another) to be named honorary member of the Royal Astronomical Society}

1815 - 1852; British

mathematician, computer pioneer

_{Studied mathematics with Charles Babbage whose Difference Engine and Analytical Engines were precursors of the modern computer. Her own contribution was to determine how such an engine could work to calculate Bernoulli numbers.}

1848 - 1931; English, American

mathematician, educator

_{Placed eighth at Cambridge, unofficially (not granted diploma due to her sex); First head of the mathematics department at Bryn Mawr College; Promoted strict entrance policies leading to the founding of the College Entrance Examination Board}

1850-1891; Russian, Germany, Sweden

mathematician

_{University of Berlin denied her admission because of her sex; University of Göttingen doctoral dissertation on partial differential equations is today called the Cauch-__________ Theorem, earned doctorate without having to attend class; First woman to hold a university chair in modern Europe; First woman on the editorial staff of a mathematical journal}

1860 - 1940; English

mathematician

_{Daughter of George Boole; Translated Platonic and Archimedean solids into higher dimensions, taking years at a time away from her career to be a homemaker}

1882 - 1935; German, Jewish, American

mathematician

_{Called by Albert Einstein 'the most significant creative mathematical genius thus far produced since the higher education of women began;' Her work on on ring theory and ideals was foundational in abstract algebra}

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