Capitals of Northern Europe, etymologically speaking

Can you name the Capitals of Europe from a description of their etymology?

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EtymologyCapitalExtra Info
Earliest explanation, now disregarded: originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud. There are many both academic and fanciful theories.Richard Coates in 1998, suggested it derives from the pre-Celtic Old European plowonida, meaning 'river too wide to ford'. Some Jews taught that the Tribe of Dan settled there, and the name means 'Land of Dan'.
The official name of the city comes from the Swedish form of the surrounding parish, Helsinge, and Swedish for rapids. Helsinge may be from Swedish settlers from Hälsingland.Or Helsinge may come from the Swedish 'helsing' from the archaic 'hals' (neck), referring to the narrowest part of the river, i.e. the rapids; the name used in every other country is derived from the official name, and was used since 1819 when the Senate moved to the town.
Etymology uncertain: Roots are possibly in the language of West Slavic inhabitants, may be related to the Old Polabian stem berl-/birl- ('swamp').Folk etymology connects the name to the word for bear, and a bear appears in the coat of arms of the city.
Most common theory: Derives from the Old Dutch Broekzele or Broeksel,meaning marsh (broek) and home (zele / sel) or 'home in the marsh'.
Named for a castle, which today is the palace and official residence of the Prince.Palace built in the 12th century, presumably by the Counts of Werdenberg-Sargans.
From 10th century castle named Lucilinburhuc ('small castle'), on the Bock Fiels ('rock'), built by Siegfried I.
After floods in 1170 and 1173 locals of the river Amstel vicinity built a bridge over- and a dam across the river,hence giving its name to the village.
Adapted from the Low German name, which ultimately derived from its original name meaning 'merchants' harbor.'The chemical element hafium is named for the capital, as is the bacterium Hafnia.
Name literally means 'Black Pool' in reference to the dark waters of the River Liffey.
Name originates from a river whose name means 'a surge' or 'to surge.'
Theory: Corrupted borrowing from ringa meaning loop, referring to the ancient harbour formed by the tributary loop of the Daugava River.Alternative theory: Owes its name to its role in commerce between East and West derived from the word for threshing barn. Or may have been derived from the German name for the River Rīdzene, a tributary of the Daugava.
Origin debated: Possibly derived from a word meaning 'Danish-castle/town.' Could also have derived from words for 'winter-castle/town' or 'house/farmstead-castle/town'
The first part of the name means log, although it may also be connected to an old German word meaning fortificationThe second part of the name means islet, and is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen.
Origin subject of much debate, though it certainly derived from Old Norse probably originally the name of a large farm at Bjørvika, but the meaning of that name is disputed. Erroneously once assumed that the name meant the mouth of the Lo river; modern linguists believe it should be interpreted as either Meadow at the Foot of a Hill, or Meadow Consecrated to the gods.
Loosely translates to Smoke Cove, referring to the steam from hot springs in the region.
Founded in the 3rd century BC by a Celtic people,who gave the city its name.
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Last Updated: Feb 16, 2017

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