Religion Quiz / World Religions 205 Final Studying

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definitionsanswersreligion
death led to beginning of Caliphate, born in Arab desert, parents died when 6, lived with Bedouins, last prophet, revelations for 22 years, defeated MeccansIslam
great place for trade for all people, home of Kaaba, starting point of hijra, Muslims expected to make pilgrimage hereIslam
ending place of hijra, unmah also hereIslam
at Medina, birth of Islamic peopleIslam
started with Muhammad's death, first period were 'rightly guided,' first 4 successors who conquered Byzantine and Persian Empires, religious minorities allowed to practice OWN faitIslam
succession of Caliphate is through hereditary succession, minority branch of IslamIslam
God, is seen as creator, sustainer, ruler, and judge of humankind, merciful, just, all-knowing, Lord and ruler of CosmosIslam
collection of biographical stories/reports contained in SunnahIslam
Muslim's duty to God, obligatory practices like 5 Pillarsone division of ISLAMIC law
Muslim's duties to others or social transactions, regulations governing public lifeone division of ISLAMIC law
Declaration of faith, prayer, almsgiving, Ramadan fast, and pilgrimmageIslam
ideally where prayer is held, place of worshipIslam
fasting ceremony, 1 of 5 pillars of IslamIslam
endeavor of a Muslim scholar to derive a rule of divine law from the Quaran and Hadith without relying on other scholarly views, 10th cent. theologians declared Muslim law frozen; Islam
'struggle,' 'exert,' obligation to live a virtuous life, fulfills the mission of Islam and spread the Islamic community, right or duty to defend Islam, 'holy war'Islam
Muslim Spain, place of interfaith cooperation and coexistence at both the court and societal levels, all religion peoples served together in caliph's courtIslam
single most important report in the words and actions of prophet Muhammad, narrative containing the best summary and core of Islam: 5 Pillars and 6 Articles of FaithIslam
originated from Natural landscape of Japan itself, began in prehistoric times after Diffuse Religions made their ways to Japan, no founder, way of the kami, stemmed from way of Budjapanese religion
spiritual tradition that centered on family and locality, informed by common ideas from many religions in Asia, stems from beliefs in early China such as organic view of an intercoasian religion
'Dao is prime source of all creation', promotes individualistic and noninterference on state's part, ideal human conduct is to let go and practiceTaoism/Daosim
children/parents, husband/wife, elder/younger brother, friend/friend, ruler/ministerConfuciansim
opposing and complementary forces; powers that make universeTaoism/Daoism
deities of a pantheon, associated with natural forces and animals, plural or singular, sometimes referred to as 8 Million____, one god, but also many deities, as can be ancestorsShinto
formed from the first letters of the three principal divisions of the Hebrew Bible, namely the Torah, Nevi'im, and KethuvimJudaism
Laozi/Lao Tzu, 'Old master,' classic Chinese text, kept record at Zhou dynastyTaoism/Daoism
books of the prophetsJudaism
adherence to one god while still recognizing, just not worshipping, many otherstype of religious practice
hebrew nation or people, descended from jacob, 12 sons became 12 tribes of ancient _______,Judaism
second one was rebuilt on more modest scale, destroyed when Judeans are exiled and the Babylonians captured Jerusalem and both kingdoms, Solomon built first one,Judaism
God says he shall not destroy earth again as he had before, be fruitful and multiply, populate earth, plants and animals are under human command, rainbow is sign of this foreverJudaism/Christianity
name means 'sacredness' in english, evil as well as good, statues are very rare, mostly in treasures and not shown to publicShinto
religion with unseen forces in heaven and on earth that could be influenced by the petitions of shamans, oracle readers, and divine kings; rooted in ancient practices of ancestor vasian religion
beginning in Exodus, contains foundations of the Torah, delivers 10 commandments, children of Israel will become priests and a holy nation, Sabbath is permanent signJudaism/Christianity
northern kingdom of Hebrews founded after reign of Solomon, inhabitants were carried to captivity in BabylonJudaism
oral Torah, consisting of Mishnah and GemaraJudaism
destruction in 70 CE ended pluralism of 1st century Jewish sects and movements that emerged, Pharisees one of few to surviveJudaism
right practicereligious practice
aka Bris/Brit Milah, every male child when he is 8 days old, intended as a sign of covenant between God and his people, child is named and foreskin of penis is cut off, serves to bJudaism
leviticus and deuteronomy, animals must be slaughtered and prepared in prescribed way, blood drained from body, certain animals forbidden altogether, meat/milk must not be cooked oIslam, Orthodox Judaism
festivals of this religion are Qing Ming, All Souls Festival, and the Full Moon festivalasian religion
someone not Jewishduh.
no fixed _______ until 70 CE, lawChristianity/Judaism
never had large following among Jews, success was a missionary movement for conversion of gentiles, apocalyptic movement believing the end of time was near and gentile conversion nJudaism
idea of Trinity was enigmatic and unformulated at this time, concluded that nature of Jesus was of the same substance of God and the concept of the Trinity triumphsChristianity
in the one person of Jesus there were 2 natures, human and divine, entitled without confusion or mixtureChristianity
believing in doctrines viewed as erroneously by those who consider themselves to be 'more orthodox'any
key figure in Prot. Reformation, adopted a monastic ethic of working hard and living simply and helped shape the Prot. Work Ethic which came to be identified with capitalism, spentChristianity
study of the end of timestudy
origins back to the Neolithic era, Vedic periods, undeciphered script, trade moving around the cityHinduism
agni-fire, pervades world of heat, sanctual fire, transports dead, purifies and transports offerings, soma, emphasis on everything is pronunciationHinduism
foundation of being ritual, cosmos, and selfHinduism
good and bad forms, in Upanisads, justified status after rebirthHinduism/Buddhism
suffering, misery from attachment to this worldBuddhism
concerned with duties of different classesHinduism
twice-born male only becomes full human after passing through 4 stages of lifeBuddhism
student, householder, forest dweller, homeless wandererBuddhism
speaking with many great voices, story of King RamaHinduism
coveys existential dilemmas of life, authored by Vyasa, longest epic in worldHinduism
heroes who become models of faith Hinduism
path of devotionHindusim
sanskrit texts extolling glories of godsHinduism mainly
personal god, comes to earth in human form, usually with flute thing and a cowHinduism
goddess above all, contradictory and ambivalent, source of light, mother, demands blood, meat and alcohol, goddesses of tooth, goddesses of breast, beautiful but terrible, dominateHinduism
worshippers of VishnuHinduism
'awakened one' 'enlightened one'Buddhism
largest single religious gathering, bathe at Prayag, kind of liek a hajj to MeccaHinduism
definitionsanswersreligion
path to nirvana, analyze and diregrese-life entails suffering, cause of suffering is desire, removing desire removes suffering, to remove desire follow 8Fold PathBuddhism
sufferingBuddhism
monastic community, forest and urbanBuddhism
'teachings of the elders', religious idela that is an arhatBuddhism
one who has attained enlightenmentBuddhism
essential, unchanging selfBuddhism
view that reality is ongoing, impermanent, constantly changing state, all interdependent on 12 parts; ignorance feeds desire, desire feeds ignoranceBuddhism
future buddha from arhatBuddhism
mandala deity of TibetansBuddhism
offerings of Agni were NOT a component of which civilization practice?Hinduism
santhitas, brahmanas, arankas, upanisadsHinduism
refers to cycle of birth and deathBuddhism
focus on external sacrifice and ritual in order to focus more on ________ about nature of self and worldHinduism
refers to devotionHinduism
way in which gods and goddesses of regional cults were incorporated into the Vaisnava traditionHinduism
refers to devotional traditions that worship Devi as surpremeHinduism
refers to deities that are associated with a particular VILLAGEHinduism
critical figure during period in India during Medieval period for the tradition of Sri VaisnavaHinduism
Manjushri is a Buddhist deity embodying .....Buddhism
prajna = Buddhism
doctrine referring to the rejection of any notion of an essential, unchanging selfBuddhism
goal of Theravada Buddhism is.....Buddhism
liberation state in BuddhismBuddhism
liberation state in HinduismHindusim
liberation state in Kailyva?
dharma refers to...Buddhism
Aryan migration theory and cultural transformation thesis are both theories for the shift between....Hinduism
underlying foundation of everythingHinduism
Brahmana/brhaminHinduism
emigration from Mecca to Medina, comes the birth of the Islamic communityIslam
the 'cube', made of wood, stone, and cloth; housed 360 tribal deities, center of pilgrimmage, built by Abraham, sacred black stone held within, sacred space surroundsIslam
herdsmen and tribe who Muhammad lived with, environment of conflict, wars common, multiple deities, Allah was seen as the high god over the pantheon of tribal gods and goddesses, mIslam
Muhammad's successor as political and military head of the communityIslam
succession of first caliphate is through qualification, branch of greater IslamIslam
majority of Muslims today are...Islam
collection of Muhammad's revelations, 'ComposBelieved' to be eternal, uncreated, literal, and final word of God, in Arabic, proclaims Muhammad to be last in a long line of prophetsIslam
chapters in QuranIslam
verses in Quran are arranged by....Islam
example of the prophet, 1/4 sources of Islamic lawIslam
4 sources of Islamic lawIslam
analogical reasoningIslam
consensusIslam
official legal opinion or interpretationIslam
declaration of faith, 1/5 pillars of IslamIslam
almsgiving, everyone obligated to come, 2.5% of assets go to communityIslam
pilgrimage to Mecca, 1/5 pillarsIslam
teacher or authority, plural for 'man of knowledge'Islam
reform movement, rejected worldly power and wealth, promoted self-discipline and purification, many practices: fasting, poverty, etc. emphasis on music and song, veneration of MuhaIslam
gethering of the Muslims, as a whole it is the 6 things they all believe in together, what needs to be carried out, 'belief' Islam
viewed as the harbinger of Christian aggression towards IslamChristianity/Islam
widespread religion, founded by Siddartha Guatama in India in 5th cent. BCE, no creator god and gives central role to doctrine of karma, 4 noble truths state that all existence is asian religion
2 major traditions of BuddhismBuddhism
3 central principles are that humanity is connected in a web of interacting natural forces; perfecting and immortalizing the human body through alchemical, dietary, and meditative Taoism/Daoism
writings of Confucius, his central acts and words of himself and his disciples, as well as their discussionsConfucianism
Confucius, 551-479 BCE, believed in acquiring virtue, moral intellectual maturity, good manners, being fully human, 'superior man' Confucianism
chun tzuConfucianism
filial conduct, attitude of obedience, devotion, care toward's one's parents and elder family membersConfucianism
'the way' prime source of all creationTaoism/Daoism
non interferenceTaoism/Daoism
open to secular society, rejected Talmud as revelation, rejected literal belief in coming of Messiah, renounced desire to return to land of IsraelJudaism
resisted change, God only revealed himself in the eternal unchanging truths of the covenant given at Sinai, reaffirmed literal messianic beliefs, insisted on observance of the TalmJudaism
sympathetic to modern intellectual view, committed to orthodox way of life, focused in orthopraxy instead of orthodoxyJudaism
reform, orthodox, conservative formsJudaism
aka the Pentateuch, date various books of the hebrew bible as being composed between 10th and 12th centuriesJudaism
first five books of the bible-genesis, leviticus, exodus, numbers, deuteronomyJudaism/Christianity
books of the historical and wisdom writingsJudaism
definitionsanswersreligion
southern part of ancient Palestine that corresponds to the former kingdom of Judah, occupied by tribe of Judah after reign of Solomon where it formed as a separate kingdom from IsrJudaism
when Judeans (southern people of Israelite tradition) were exiled to Babylonia, major turning point in Israelite religionJudaism
Jewish life shifted from temple to this when Pharisees helped Jews form a new identity as Jews apart from the land of the temple Judaism
found in genesis, covenant between parts, God would make him a great nation, circumcision is signJudaism/Christianity
followers of Jesus of Nazareth, positive towards gentiles, sought their conversion, expected Messiah to be a spiritual leaderJudaism
writings that codify the wisdom of the oral Torah and form the core of the TalmudJudaism
right beliefreligious practice
recalls God's deliverance of the tribes of Israel from slavery in egypt, celebrated in the home with an event called seder, male head of household presides over retelling of the stJudaism
key question of pesachJudaism
ancient Jewish tradition of mystical interpretation of the Bible; first transmitted orally and using esoteric methods (ciphers), and it reached height of its influence when in lateJudaism
teacher, followers referred to Jesus as himJudaism
able to find flexible leadership under dramatically new conditionsJudaism
Constantine permits the practice of Christianity, Constantine however retains some pagan religiousity, changed day of Christian worship from Sabbath to day of the Sun, Apollo, on SJudaism/Christianity
concluded that Jesus had a human body and mind, or in other words completely human with a birth and death like everyone elseChristianity
16th cent. split between Western Christianity, initiated by Luther, Calvin and other early prots, efforts of these rejected doctrines, rituals, or ecclesiastical structure of romanChristianity
initiated prot. reformation, thought reason could be useful in secular matters, when it comes to faith he called reason a '****' that could not be trusted to lead one to God, had Christianity
theories of salvation, liberationstudy
study of the nature of being, all-beings, humans, deities, etc. metaphysically orientedstudy
associated with 4 traditions: Rg, Yajur, Sama, ArthavaHinduism
fire, used in many ritualsHinduism
truth of a person beyond apparent differencesHinduism
to flow on, sanskrit word, to pass though worlds of existenceBuddhism
more encompassing term for idea of religionBuddhism
4 social classes-person's class in societyHinduism
trade people-legsHinduism
serves higher classes, slaves, feetHinduism
kings, armsHinduism
priests, advisors to kings, headHinduism
release from cycle of rebirthHinduism
god who destroyed all evil kings, a king himself, dharma of kingsHinduism
famous portion evaluating diverse dharmas, Song of Supreme LordHinduism
blue/black skinned god, lying asleep in coils of snakes, youthful, wears yellow, universe formed from breath, inhales destruction, 3 primary manifestationsHinduism
god of ambiguity and paradox, competes with Vishnu, ithyphallic promiscuous god, celibate yogin, ascetic and family man, half male/half female with consort Durga, god of destructioHinduism
sakti, denotes female power or energyHinduism
worshippers of ShivaHinduism
first Buddha, enlightened one, born into Hindu ksatriyasBuddhism
'wisdom' capacity for deep spiritual discernment 'insight' characterized by 3 marks of existenceBuddhism
outlines means for achieving nirvana, right views, thoughts, speech, actions, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, and concentration...also including morality, meditation, and wisdomBuddhism
'great vehicle,' religious ideal is bodhisattva, pure land Buddhism, goal is to become a BuddhaBuddhism
sanskrit 'too cool by blowing,' cooled kleshas, freedom/existence in perfect state, state of liberation, burning off one's karmaBuddhism
monksBuddhism
5 aggregates (physical body made of 4 elements)Buddhism
merit which karma unfatalistic, but continually making new ones, demerit which can change calculus of karmic destinyBuddhism/Hinduism
Islam's founding prophetIslam
Hinduism's founding prophetHinduism
patriarch of JudaismJudaism
Buddhist founderBuddhism
sacred book of IslamIslam
land of indigenous traditions is viewed as a...Shinto
Buddhism teachings if God are....Buddhism
contract between God and God's peopleJudaism
religious texts that are foundations of HinduHinduism
theravadas key virtue is wisdom, mahayana is...Buddhism
God in IslamIslam
five books of MosesJudaism
Islam followers of Judaism and Christianity are called....Islam
worship in Hinduism is known as...Hinduism
this type of Jews believes their religion should be in conversation with the modern worldJudaism
first noble truth of BuddhismBuddhism
krishna's instruction to Arjuna on the art of self-transcendenceHinduism
karma yoga is right action, while bhakti yoga is devotion to....Hinduism/Buddhism
rejected caste systemBuddhism
soul-part of individual which is BrahmanHinduism
first revelation of Quran being given to Muhammad is commemorated by...Islam
in Judaism, life is considered......Judaism

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