Science Quiz / PODule8.1-8.3

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Can you name the PODule8?

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What is the definition of a toxin?
 
Mycotoxins originate from _____ while phytotoxins originate from ____
 
 
What are the two forms of dose-independent toxicosis?
 
 
What breed of dog is more susceptible to macrolide antiparasiticides due to a defective P-glycoprotein in the blood brain barrier?
 
What percentage of poisoning cases in small animals involve a canine patient?
 
what percentage of poisonings are acute ingestions?
 
What is the highest dose of toxicant per body mass that will not cause toxic effects to be observed known as?
 
How the body handles a chemical, which determines which organs and tissues are affected, is referred to as?
aspects include absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion 
What chemicals and metabolites of the drug do to the body is known as?
 
What kinds of toxicants do not need to be absorbed by the body first in order to cause their effects?
 
What is your typical first drug of choice to treat tremors or seizures as a result of toxicosis? What would you use next? As a last resort?
 
 
 
What would you use to treat cerebral edema and increased intracranial pressure from prolonged seizures?
 
true or false: dipyrone and other antipyretics are frequently effective for toxic hyperthermias?
 
Below what body temperature will patients require active rewarming? What is a safe rate to increase their body temperature at?
 
 
True or false: induction of emesis and gastric lavage are generally not options in horses and ruminants?
 
Which of the following does not contraindicate induced emesis?
a) likely ingestion within 2 hours of present time b)vomiting has already occurred c) respiratory compromise d) ingestion of caustic agents e) ingestion of petrolatum products or volatile solvents 
What is the safest household product which may be used to induce emesis by clients before driving to the clinic? (dose= 2 mL/kg)
Hint: this will be effective for dogs and cats, unlike other potential options 
In what small animal species is ipecac most effective for inducing emesis?
 
If emesis is indicated for a patient presented at your clinic, what drug will you administer if it is a dog? A cat?
 
 
Which of the following is not a contraindication for gastric lavage?
a) Approximately 1 and a half hours have transpired since the poisoning b)sharp objects were ingested c) emetics have been ineffective d) caustic or volatile agents were involved 
What is the penultimate thing you should do before removing a gastric tube in proper lavage technique? The very last thing?
 
 
True or false: small, highly polar hydrophilic compounds are poorly absorbed by AC?
 
What are the main contraindications for the use of cathartics?
 
 
Removing additional toxin before absorption is ______, whereas hastening systemic elimination of toxicants that have been absorbed is ______.
 
 
What chemical would you use to ion trap a weakly acidic toxicant? A weakly basic one?
 
 
What is the antidote for acetaminophen toxicity in cats?
 
What is the antidote for ethylene glycol in dogs?
 
What is the purpose of ionophores in the poultry industry? For ruminants?
 
 
What are the three major forms of ionophores?
 
 
 
Where would the main lesions develop if cattle were overdosed on monensin or horses were exposed to cattle feed containing it?
 
Where would small ruminants tend to get more lesions from excessive monensin?
 
Which of the following is not a differential diagnosis for monensin toxicity in cattle?
a) yew poisoning b) oleander poisoning c) white muscle disease d) chronic bracken fern exposure  
Which of the following would you not expect to be elevated with monensin toxicity?
a) AST b) CK c) AP d) cardiac troponin e) none of the above 
True or false: if monensin toxicity is suspected, it is important to individually examine all cattle for severity of muscle degeneration in a cattle chute?
 
What two chemicals are formed by metabolism of nitrates in ruminants that lead to toxic effects?
 
 
What would you treat nitrate toxicity with?
 
What are two major predisposing factors to salt poisoning?
 
 
True or false: clinical signs related to edema disease will appear only when deprived animals are allowed access to water again?
 
The dog-sitting posture of pigs during edema disease is accompanied by signs of what fancy medical term?
 
If you are fortunate enough to reach a herd of cows suffering from NPN toxicity before recumbency occurs, what two things would you administer?
 
 
True or false: cyanobacteria/blue-green algae are more commonly responsible for neurotoxicity, but can be hepatotoxic with anatoxin A content?
 
I am produced by fusarium graminearum. I am estrogenic and nonsteroidal. I make boars womanly and screw up pig reproduction. What am I?
I'm produced around 19-20*C 
I am produced by fusarium, amongst others. I like cool, damp conditions. Mucosal irritation and inflammation will result if an animal doesn't refuse to eat me!
I'm produced by the same organisms around 6-12*C! 
I am produced by fusarium verticilloides, in warm conditions mainly in central or southeast USA. I am cardiotoxic to pigs, cause neuro and liver signs in horses, poultry resist me.
 
I'm produced by aspergillus flavus, etc., prefer warm, humid conditions, and cause severe liver damage and/or cancers in dogs and humans.
 
Why would an acid burn be less severe than an alkali one?
 
Which of the following might not be a wise treatment for ingestion of soaps or detergents?
a)inducing emesis b) dilution with milk c) dilution with water d)supportive electrolytes 
Rank the types of detergent in order of increasing toxicity?
 
 
'Other alkali products' may be worse than this type, especially if they contain lye. This type is still super fatal though. 
What would you expect to see with lower toxic doses of ibuprofen in dogs? Higher doses?
 
 
What would you expect the primary signs to be in a cat with ibuprofen toxicity?
 
What drug would you administer to combat ibuprofen toxicity by inhibiting gastric acid secretion? Which one to protect GI mucosae?
 
 
What form of metabolism forms N-acetyl benzoquinoneimine, the toxic metabolite of acetaminophen in dogs and cats?
Normally only a small minority of molecules undergo this, with the correct dose. Cats are deficient in glucuronidase, hence easier toxicity. 
What antidote would you administer to act as a source of glutathione and minimize hepatic damage due to acetaminophen toxicity?
 
What else might you give animals suffering from acetaminophen toxicosis, for their blood?
Especially cats. Their blood is more affected than their livers, unlike dogs. 
Which of the following is NOT a sign of canine marijauna intoxication?
a) depression b) ataxia c) hypothermia d) mydriasis e) none of the above 
True or false: vomiting should be induced immediately if gasoline was consumed in the last hour?
 
Consumption of ethylene glycol usually results in ______, and some oxalic acid will crystalize in _____ ______ causing necrosis and failure of the organ.
 
 
What is the main treatment option for consumption of antifreeze with ethylene glycol? What could be used in a pinch?
this will prevent EG metabolism by inhibiting ADH. 
This will also prevent EG metabolism, but may induce coma. 
Why is propylene glycol less harmful than ethylene glycol?
 
True or false: fomepizole may be beneficial to animals that have imbibed methanol, which is worse for them than it is for primates?
 
True or false: In dogs, macademia nuts can cause fatal toxicity at as little as 1 nut/kg BW?
 
What is the likely cause of death for a dog that ate cocoa powder?
 
True or false: Canadian pennies from 1982 onwards contain over 95% zinc?
 
Which of the following is not a sign of penny (Zinc) intoxication?
a)vomiting and abdominal pain b) hepatic necrosis c) renal tubular necrosis d)DIC e)neuro signs 
True or false: Grapes are highly toxic to dogs, but raisins are safe.
 
True or false: some dogs can eat ridiculous amounts of grapes and be fine.
 
Would you be more concerned if your dog ate a dairy milk bar or some expensive organic dark chocolate that tastes disgusting and bitter?
 
What breed of dog has famous members who once saved the life of a Dutch prince, and bit Napoleon on his wedding night, respectively?
Josephine really liked them apparently. History doesn't tell us where the dog bit him, so we have to assume it was his junk. 

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