Science Quiz / PODule 4

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What is the likely result when hemostasis is thrown out of balance in favour of procoagulation factors?
 
What is the likely result when hemostasis is unbalanced in favour of anticoagulant factors?
 
True or false: Shift platelets are younger than normal platelets, can be larger than red cells, and are less effective at hemostasis than normal platelets?
 
Where within the platelet would you expect to find beta-thromboglobulin, FVIII-RA/vWF, platelet factor 4 and fibrinogen?
 
What are the contents of dense bodies within platelets?
 
 
 
In which species do you expect normal platelets to be larger? In which are they harder to see?
 
 
What increases the amount of thrombopoietin in the blood?
 
What proportion of platelets are normally sequestered in the splenic pool?
___ out of ___ 
What mediates the binding of platelets to subendothelial collagen? To what is it bound in circulation?
 
 
What chemical is released by endothelials in response to thrombin, to inhibit further platelet aggregation?
 
True or false: If there is less FVIII, the amount of vWF will also decrease?
 
Thrombin, thromboxane A2 and ADP are released by platelets for what purpose?
 
Less than what number of platelets per high powered field is considered evidence of thrombocytopenia?
 
True or false: a BMBT cannot distinguish between decreased functionality of platelets and thrombocyopenia?
 
How is von willebrand's disease inherited?
 
True or false: heterozygotes for vWD may have normal BMBT and APTT times?
 
Thromboplastin converts _____ to _____ which helps convert soluble _____ to ______, to form a clot.
 
 
 
 
What condition might cause a dog to be deficient in FVIII but not vWF?
 
vWD type I is a decrease in ____ factor types, while type II is a decrease in the _____ type.
 
 
What two types of vWD will likely cause spontaneous bleeds?
 
What breed of dog has their own special thrombopathy?
 
Which of the following may induce platelet problems in some patients:
a)NSAIDS b) antibiotics c) MLVs d) all of the above 
Which of the following is NOT a cause of immune-mediated thrombocytopenia?
a)MLV vaccines b)Rocky Mountain Spotted fever c)vitamin K deficiency d)drug metabolite haptens 
Which of the following is a reliable test for immune-mediated thrombocytopenia?
a)platelet factor 3 release b)flow cytometry for Ig on surfaces of platelets c)decreased mean platelet volume d) there are none 
Spontaneous hemorrhage rarely occurs as a result of thrombocytopenia, unless count is below _____x10^9/L or the patient has _____.
 
 
Which of the following is not a sign of DIC?
a) prolonged PT b) prolonged APTT, c)decreased FDPs, d)decreased fibrinogen e) rbc fragmentation 
True or false: hemorrhage is a common cause of thrombocytopenia
 
How would you check for splenic pooling of thrombocytes/pseudothrombocytopenia?
 
What species may suffer thrombocytopenia as a result of heparin administration?
 
What is the term for the condition of increased platelets following thrombocytopenia?
 
Name, in order, the coagulation factors that depend on vitamin K?
 
 
 
 
What do fibrinogen, factor V, and factor VIII have in common?
 
Thrombin that escapes a clot binds with _______ on endothelials and releases _____ __, which inhibits factors V and VIII.
 
 
What is the sole coagulation factor involved prior to the common pathway for the tissue factor/extrinsic path?
'Maybe next time, we don't date the girl with eleven evil ex-boyfriends?' '__.' 'oh, well that's not that bad then.' 
What are the factors, in order, involved in the contact or intrinsic pathway?
 
 
 
 
Blue tops are used for coagulation tests, when collecting the blood. What is inside?
 
What are the factors, in order, involved in the common pathway?
 
 
 
 
Activated clotting time (ACT) will yield a longer time when factors of the _____ or _____ pathway have fallen below __% of normal. It will be automatically prolonged in cases of __
 
 
 
 
Why do low platelet counts not affect APTT?
 
Which of the following would not potentially lengthen the APTT?
a) DIC b) factor VII deficiency c)vWD d)hemophilia e)hereditary FXII deficiency 
Both OSPT and APTT will lengthen noticeably when a relevant factor is decreased to less than ___% of normal.
 
OSPT will detect what kind of toxicity earlier than APTT?
 
Which of the following is not a potential cause of lengthened OSPT time?
a) factor VII deficiency b) DIC c) vitamin K deficiency d) factor IX deficiency 
Free floating plasmin that has escaped from a clot is mopped up by?
 
What degrades plasminogen activator inhibitor in order to confine clots?
Hint: Vitamin K dependent. Other hint: not factor X, IX, VII or II. 
Heat precipitation on EDTA treated plasma will only detect ____ concentrations of fibrinogen
 
Thrombin clotting time (TT) is inversely proportional to the concentration of _______, and is prolonged by ______ and _______.
 
 
 
What are the three progressively darker descriptors given for congested venous blood's colour?
 
 
 
What is the term for post-mortem gravitational settling of blood?
 
Complete the sentence: Congestion always results from an _______ __ _____ ______
 
Heart failure can be congestive. Left-sided failure will congest the ____, while right sided will congest the _____.
 
 
What is the term for a clear plasma transudate leaking into the abdomen from the liver?
 
After distension of the central vein, zone 3 hepatocytes will undergo ischemic damage in congested livers. What is the next sign in large animals? In dogs? In cats?
 
 
 
What descriptor may only be applied to the changes from the last question exhibited by horses and ruminants?
 
What is the leakage of individual red cells referred to as?
 
What is the term for alveolar macrophages full of red cells and hemosiderin?
 
What is the word for increased redness caused by dilatation of arterioles?
 
In a nutmeg liver, what areas are brown? Red? Yellow-white?
 
 
 
What are some reasons for hyperemia?
 
 
 
What is the descriptor for a small hemorrhage of less than 3mm? 3mm to 1cm?
 
 
Name two tissues in which one would be likely to find a paintbrush hemorrhage?
 
 
What is the name for a tumour-like nodule formed by a space-occupying hemorrhage?
 
What is the state of widespread ecchymoses and petechiae?
 
Name four very bad types of hemorrhage, based on location.
 
 
 
 
Purpura can be a clue to three potentially life threatening conditions, even if the amount of blood lost is insignificant. what are they?
 
 
 
What is the prefix used to indicate edema in the body part the stem indicates?
 
Ascites is synonymous with?
 
Which is the least common cause of hypoproteinemia? Inadequate production in liver, loss in kidneys, or loss in intestines?
 
You have applied a bandage too tight. What will happen, in order?
 
 
Fear of what consequence of edema prompts the wrapping of horse's lower limbs in hospitals?
 
True or false: ischemia can be caused by an arterial or venous blockage?
 
True or false: Large vessel thromboses tend to be caused by an imbalance between pro- and anti-coagulative factors?
 
Where would you expect to find most of the red cells in an arterial thrombus? Why?
 
 
How do you tell the difference between a postmortem clot and a genuine venous clot?
 
Endothelial damage is usually a pre-requisite for, and certainly the most important cause of large vessel thrombosis. 3 others?
 
 
 
What factors might build up and allow a clot to propagate with turbulence/ in the interruption of laminar flow?
 
 
 
 
 
 
What is the more common name of fibrolysin?
 
What is the term for thrombi on heart valves?
 
Which is more significant, an in situ thrombus or an equivalently sized thromboembolus? Why?
 
 
Which is not a common cause of DIC?
gram negative sepsis, bluetongue, EHD, glomerulonephritis  
In microvascular thromboses, _____ tends to be the most important component over ______, unlike in large vessels.
This is why endothelial injury is not as much of a prerequisite. 
 
Consumption of all available clotting factors by DIC is termed ______ _______.
 
Heparin inhibits fibrin formation, but only in the presence of adequate ______ __
 
What expensive fibrinolytic may act as a 'magic bullet' to find and destroy microvascular thrombi, but is less effective on large vessel thrombi, merely slowing them?
 
What could be the result of killing heartworms in the right atrium or pulmonary artery?
 
What is the intermediate organ affected, when chemical rumenitis ultimately causes a septic pulmonary embolism?
 

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