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Can you name the PODule 3?

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What suffix would you use to denote enlargement of the organ indicated by the stem?
 
Cardiomyopathy means _____ of the heart muscle
 
True or false: atrophy can be correctly used to denote the shrinkage of a tissue or organ by loss of cells OR shrinkage of cells?
 
Atrophy is to a normally developed organ as ______ is to a developing organ?
 
Rank the following in decreasing order of severity? agenesis, hypoplasia, aplasia
 
 
 
If an organ has not developed properly, but primordial tissues are present, this is an example of?
 
True or false: metaplasia is reversible?
 
What is the common shape for a stromal cell?
 
Intracellular kertain is an example of what kind of molecule? (They maintain cell shape by attaching to CAMs)
 
Cells with a rounded shape often originate from these types of lineages.
 
If a cell reverts to a less-differentiated, more primitive, stem-cell like form, what has occured?
 
When an epithelial-derived tumor gains the ability to metastasize, what has occured?
 
Arrange the following tissues in decreasing order of cell proliferation rate: Oral mucosa, Liver, myocardium, thymic cortex
 
 
 
 
Arrange the following tissues in decreasing order of cell proliferation rate: intestinal crypts, cartilage, respiratory mucosa, neurons
 
 
 
 
Of the following, which two would have the closest background cell proliferation rates: intestinal crypts, pancreas, neurons, bone growth plates, myocardium
 
What two cell types in the liver may renew their populations by replication of multipotent stem cells?
 
 
What are the mechanisms by which phosphorylated mTOR promotes hypertrophy?
 
 
 
 
Which kinase protein is responsible for activating mTOR following fibre stretching or other positive stimuli?
 
True or false: paracrine cytokines tend to be the most useful in therapy?
 
True or false: various fibroblast growth factors, transforming growth factor beta and hepatocyte growth factors are sometimes bound inactive to the ECM?
 
True or false: Activated PTEN is a hallmark of many neoplasms?
 
What molecule is required to leave the Go (resting)phase?
 
The checkpoint at G1 is for _______ ______ while the checkpoint at G2 is for ____ ____ _____
 
 
True or false: a hypertrophied healthy kidney can do the work of two, since new nephrons will grow?
 
Phenobarbital will cause hypertrophy in which organ? What cellular product will be richer in darkened zones afterwards?
 
 
Name two ways in which thyroid glands may be prompted to become hyperplastic?
 
 
True or false: cats suffering from thyroid gland hyperplasia may also present with secondary cardiomyopathy?
 
Hyperplasia of the keratinized layer of epithelium is referred to as ______.
 
Hyperplasia of the proliferative layer of epithelium is known as _____.
 
Would you associate anthracosis or acanthosis with the lung, in most cases?
 
What might cause parakaratosis in a non-reptilian patient?
 
 
What is a common cause of hepatic atrophy? (Think a vasculature problem)
 
Which of TGE or parvovirus would you associate with the destruction of intestinal crypts?
 
You find a watery and gelatinous tissue in the bone marrow. What has likely occurred here?
 
In utero infection with BVDV will cause...?
 
What in utero infection often causes cerebellar hypoplasia in cats?
 
True or false: a dog is castrated before sexual maturity is reached. The prostate will undergo atrophy.
 
What is the name for a clonal mutant population of cells in which differentiation and proliferation are abnormal but not yet neoplastic?
 
What is the name for the science of developmental malformations and defects?
 
What is the word for failure to form in the correct location?
 
True or false: all congenital anomalies are hereditary?
 
Teratogenesis is a term applied only to sublethal injuries affecting development of a fetus or embryo, whereas _____ ____ includes fatal problems?
 
Which genes are likely messed up if limbs are missing or additional limbs are present?
 
If a lamb exhibits congenital malformation of the head, what toxic plant might the dam have consumed between days 10 and 15 of gestation?
 
What is the mechanism by which thalidomide prevents limb formation?
 
If one copy of the IGF2 gene is not shut down by imprinting, what is the likely result?
 
You have just produced a beautiful daughter, who unfortunately is missing her left arm. Thinking back to your days learning about congenital anomalies, you name her _____?
 
Failure of closure of the neural tube is referred to as?
 
Lateral curvature of the spine is known as ____ while dorsoventral curvature is ______
 
 
What congenital malformation are we checking for when we observe the roof of a puppy's mouth?
 
A gain of function gene that causes cancer is an ______, whereas a loss of function gene leading to cancer is a ____ _____
 
 
A preneoplastic growth ends up becoming a metastasizing evil neoplasm. What two transformations occurred?
 
 
Epithelial origin is to ______ as mesenchymal origin is to ______
 
 
Osteoma is to osteosarcoma as chondroma is to _______
 
Cytologic criteria assessment of a neoplasm is referred to as?
 
What does the TNM staging scale examine (i.e. what do the T, N and M stand for)?
 
 
 
Deep invasion into the local tissue without spread to regional lymph nodes or distant metastases would be staged as?
 
Variation in cell appearance and differentiation in general is referred to as:
 
What is aneuploidy?
 
The most common sites for metastasis are?
 
 
 
What product is produced in excess by tumours leading to the paraneoplastic syndrome 'cachexia?'
 
Cushing's disease is a subset of _______, a subset of paraneolastic syndromes.
 
What type of tumor can lead to hypoglycemia?
 
Aflatoxins are carcinogens which tend to target which organ?
 
The stage of neoplastic progression at which oncogenes are activated is:
 
What cow breed is especially susceptible to ocular carcinomas?
 
Non-mutagenic carcinogens tend to work by promoting?
 

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