Science Quiz / Phase 3 Clin Pharm Midterm 1

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Can you name the Phase 3 Clin Pharm Midterm 1

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Which of the following situations is not a justificaiton for empirical AMD use?
a)bacterial cystitis b)tooth rot abscess c)lower urinary tract signs with bacteria in the urine d)fever e)cat bite abscess 
What is the more common name of the Kirby-Bauer method of culture and sensitivity testing?
In this manner of C/S testing you have a set amount of bacteria in a series of vessels, and dilute the amount of drug added by half each time.
The MIC is the plate with lowest concentration that has no additional growth. 
Please list the three designation codes for culture/sensitivity testing?
This method of C/S testing requires expensive test strips, but the MIC can be read simply from the edge of the zone of inhibition.
What class of AMDs is associated with poor oral absorption necessitating daily injections, and nephrotoxicity especially in dehydrated animals?
Which of the following drugs does NOT target microbial protein synthesis?
a)tetracyclines b)metronidazole c)aminoglycosides d)chloramphenicol e)macrolides 
Which of the following targets DNA replication?
a)fluoroquinolones b)trimethoprim c)sulfonamides d)ormetoprim e) none of the above 
Which of the following does NOT target cell wall synthesis?
a)vancomycin b)penicillins c)cephalosporins d)bacitracin e)none of the above 
True or false: Bacteriostatic drugs work by a mechanism that makes it impossible to reach a concentration fatal to microbes without immune function?
Which of the following is NOT an indication for bacteriocidal drugs rather than bacteriostatic?
a)neutropenia b)concurrent steroid use c)neonatal age d)septicemia e)none of the above 
To give prophylactic AMDs for surgery, begin injection __-__ minutes before, and cease administration within __ hours of closing?
I have performed surgery on the stomach. It was clean-contaminated. I should use prophylactic antibiotics that are effective against ___-_______ bacteria?
_______ is usually the prophylactic AMD of choice for surgery of dogs and cats?
The volume of distribution is a proportionality constant between the amount of drug in the ____ versus the amount in the ____?
If yu multiply the Vd by the TC, you get?
TC=target concentration 
You would expect lipid soluble drugs, and drugs that bind to many tissues outside of plasma, to have a ____ Vd?
If I divided Vd by plasma CL, what would I get?
Name 3 types of AMD that are concentration dependent?
Time dependent drugs need to be over the MIC for __-___% of the dosing interval to reduce resistance?
When treating a pyrrexic animal with antimicrobials, the animal should be afebrile _-_ days before cessation of treatment.
Acute infections generally take 7-10 days to treat with AMDs, whereas chronic infections tend to take _-_ weeks.
With what age group would you associate a higher bioavailability and slower elimination for most drugs?
What is the term for AMD use for high risk herds that may be facing a disease outbreak?
Which of the following AMDs is NOT a first line?
a)penicillin b)3rd gen cephalosporins c)tetracycline d) TMS e)2nd gen cephalosporins 
Which of the following drugs is NOT banned from food animal use?
a)chloramphenicol b)clenbuterol c) DES d)nitroimidazoles e)nitrofurazone f)none of the above 
What are plural fungal infections called?
What fungal pathogen is most famously a yeast in the body and a filament outside?
What two classes of antifungal drugs target the plasma membrane? What component of fungal membranes is targetted, and what does it replace from mammalian cells?
______ _ is a systemic polyene, while ______ and _____ are topical polyenes.
True or false: Both polyenes and azoles are fungicidal?
Which of the following is NOT an azole?
a) itraconazole b)ketoconazole c)clotrimazole d)griseofulvin e)fluconazole 
What biochemical parameter should be monitored 2x per week on Amphotericin B?
True or false: amphotericin B does not bind cholesterol?
For a life threatening sytemic mycosis, I'd likely use ________ unless the animal was immunocompromised, in which case I'd opt for ______.
True or false: Amphotericin B is commonly combined with a simultaneous azole administration?
Which of the following drugs is NOT effective against dermatophytes?
a)nystatin b)griseofulvin c)terbinafine d)fluconazole e) none of the above 
Azoles can be teratogenic by disrupting the homeostasis of _____ ___ in the fetus?
True or false: triazoles may occasionally see use to inhibit cortisol synthesis for hyperadrenocorticism patients?
True or false: azoles may have a negative effect on P450 enzmes in the mammalian liver as well as those that make ergosterol in the fungus?
If I need to reach the CNS, which of the following four drugs would I pick? Amphotericin B, Fluconazole, Itraconazole, Ketoconazole
The use of triazoles should be discontinued if increased ___ is noticed on biochem?
True or false: Terbinafine is only effective against dermatophytes?
I am never used without Amp B, I am mainly used for fungal meningitis, and I enter fungal mRNA to stop protein synthesis. I am?
Antiemetics may be used prophylactically for which two conditions?
Which of the following is NOT a type of antiemetic?
a) H1 agonists b)dopamine antagonists c)H2 agonists d)serotonin antagonists e) Neurokinin-1 antagonists 
Which of the following is NOT a contraindication for dopamine antagonist antiemetics?
a)bowel obstruction b)bowel perforation c)epilepsy d)chemotherapy 
Ondansetron and Granisetron are both what kind of antiemetics?
Diphenhydramine (benadryl) and meclizine are both what kind of antiemetic?
What kind of antiemetic is maropitant?
What derivative of morphine activates CTZ dopamine receptors to cause vomiting in dogs?
Prochlorperazine and metoclopramide are both what kind of antiemetics?
______ from enterochromaffin-like cells prompts the formation of cAMP from ATP, whereas ________ and _____ prompt increased Ca2+ to cause parietal cells to secrete more H+?
______ and _____ 
Levels of what hormone are also decreased with H2 blockers, along with HCl?
Which of the following anti-ulcer drugs is NOT an H2 blocker?
a)cimetidine b)ranitidine c)famotidine d)omeprazole 
What is the most potent anti-ulcer drug available, irreversibly binding proton pumps?
Which H2 blocker would you not associate with P450 inhibition at all?
Name both classes of anti-ulcer drugs, in alphabetical order, with all subclasses after each one?
True or false: coadministration of omeprazole with sucralfate would increase the effectiveness of sucralfate?
All antacids are ______ _____. Can be of aluminum, magnesium or calcium?
________ is a mucosal protectant, which acts as a Prostaglandin analogue to increase mucus and bicarbonate production?
What drug, used as an antiemetic, may also be useful as a prokinetic? What other prokinetic drug is int he same subcategory?
What serotonin receptor modulator promotes Ach release, and is the most broad spectrum prokinetic?
What is the active ingredient in pepto BISmol?
What two opioids are good for the treatment of diarrhea?
_____ and _____ 
Why do belladonna alkaloids have more side effects than synthetic anticholinergics when treating diarrhea?
_______ are associated with making the formation of soft stools easier, whereas _______ are associated with fluid evac, and are strongly contraindicated by dehydration.
Osmotic cathartics are mainly ____ or _____
Examples include magnesium sulfate, sodium sulfate, mannitol, sorbitol, lactulose. 
Irritant/stimulant cathartics like castor and olive oil are dependent on ______ ______ to convert them to irritant soaps?
Exocrine pancreas deficiency is commonly treated with what derivative of the hog pancreas?
Which of the following is NOT an appetite stimulant?
a)diplotapide b)diazepam c)cyproheptidase d)mirtazapine 
This drug is used for hepatic disease, to reduce toxic bile salt accumulation, and promote dissolution of gall stones?
Inflammatory Bowel Disease can be treated with _____ which depresses T-cell mediated activity, or _____ which is cleaved apart by colonic bacteria?
Which of the following is NOT an example of a simple bulk laxative?
a)docusate sodium b)methylcellulose c)psyllium seed d)none of the above 
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