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Hint Answer % Correct
Which of the following is not a function of calcium?e
88.9%
Milk fever and parturient paresis are both terms indicating?hypocalcemia
77.8%
True or false: binding of PTH to its receptor cannot occur with hypomagnesemia?false, signalling to increase vitamin D and whatnot does not occur after the binding unless magnesium ions are bound also
77.8%
Which of the following is not a potential pathophysiology of milk fever?d
77.8%
What percentage of the body pool of calcium resides in bone?99%
66.7%
True or false: roughly 5x the plasma pool of calcium is required PER MILKING in early lactation?false, roughly 9x.
66.7%
What organ is responsible for synthesis of 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D?kidney
66.7%
Which of the following clinical signs would not be associated with Stage I hypocalcemia (prodromal stage)?d), this is a stage II sign. Stage I may also include mild tachycardia, fine muscle tremors, and dystocia, potentailly retained placenta
66.7%
Focal muscle tremors, depression and anorexia, variable rectal temperature, weak pulse, increased HR, and bloat are all signs of what stage of hypocalcemia?stage II
55.6%
Which of the following is not a sign of stage III hypocalcemia?a), it will be lateral recumbency past stage II. The animal has very poor cardiac function and may die by respiratory failure
55.6%
True or false: hypomagnesemia decreases the amount of PTH released in response to hypocalcemia?true
55.6%
The peri-parturient period runs from _ weeks before birth to _-_ weeks after.2
44.4%
What breed is predisposed to hypocalcemia more than others?jersey
44.4%
If seeking to prevent relapses of milk fever, one should not use subcutaneous calcium with high _____ solutions.dextrose, causes necrosis and sloughing due to irritation
44.4%
Which of the following is a likely secondary complication of milk fever?f, others include teat trauma, metritis, musculoskeletal trauma, aspiration pneumonia
44.4%
In late dry cow period, one should seek to prevent milk fever by _____ the diet.acidify
44.4%
Which of the following is NOT an anionic salt that might be used to prevent alkalosis?e), you can have any combinaton of magnesium, calcium or ammonium and sulfate or chloride, or HCl.
44.4%
True or false: Hyperphosphatemia would be normal with hypocalcemia?false, it tends to decrease due to increased PTH causing net loss through urine and saliva, although it is also being resorbed from bone. Decreased intake due to low DMI can also be a factor
44.4%
True or false: a normal magnesium level in the blood does not rule out grass tetany?true, it can be falsely elevated after a convulsion
44.4%
Which of the following is not a sign of hypomagnesemic tetany?b), tachycardia is
44.4%
Which of the following would not likely form a part of your herd's prevention plan for hypomagnesemic tetany?d
44.4%
True or false: Cows normally intake more dry matter in preparation for parturition, as an evolutionary mechanism to reduce hypocalcemia?false, they reduce intake by ~20%, which seems to make the problem worse, causing decreased calcium intake, decreased intestinal motility, worsened hypocalcemia
44.4%
Which of the following is NOT a test you should perform on a cow sick in the periparturient period?f
44.4%
True or false: dextrose containing fluids will actually make hypophosphatemia worse, compared to most diseases of downer cows?true
44.4%
Ketones in urine are called? In blood? Milk?ketonuria
44.4%
ketonemia
44.4%
What is the incidence of hypocalcemia in high producing dairy cattle?5-10%
33.3%
______ _______ comes in 500 mL bottles, and is a good treatment for milk fever.calcium borogluconate, should be administered over 10-20 minutes
33.3%
2 hours
33.3%
If I add sodium and potassium ions and subtract chlorine and sulfur, this would give me?Dietary cation-anion difference
33.3%
5.8-6.2 is the ideal urine pH in the late dry cow period for _____, all others are optimal at 6.0-6.5Jerseys
33.3%
Grass staggers, grass tetany and lactation tetany are all more colourful terms for?hypomagnesemic tetany (hypomagnesemia)
33.3%
What condition should be considered in downer cows refractory to calcium administration?hypophosphatemia, most will resolve with IV calcium ion administration, but some require separate NaPO4 administration.
33.3%
True or false: grass tetany is more common in dairy cattle?false, more common in beef cattle. Grazing of heavily fertilized pastures (nitrogen and or potassium fertilizers, compete with magnesium for uptake by plant) during lactation is a major risk factor
33.3%
Which of the following would not be a risk factor for hypomagnesemic tetany?c), actually more likely in spring or fall
33.3%
If you had to sample a cow that had died 14 hours ago, and you wanted to see if hypomagnesemic tetany was the cause, what fluid would you sample at this time?vitreous humour, which is reliable for less than 48 hours, but your'e outside the range for CSF (less than 12 hours) and serum is not reliable PM.
33.3%
What organ produces 1-hydroxyvitamin D, which is converted by hte kidneys to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D?liver
33.3%
bone
33.3%
True or false: due to the horrible complications of hypophosphatemia, diets should contain over 80 grams of phosphorus per day?false, 0.4% is the minimum phosphorus content, but higher than 80 grams of phophorus a day can block vitamin D production by the kidneys, predisposing to hypocalcemia.
33.3%
Intraruminal boluses of these growth potentiating antibiotics may help prevent hypomagnesemic tetany?ionophores
33.3%
Which of the following is not a volatile fatty acid (VFA) produced from starch in ruminants?c)
33.3%
8-10 weeks post-partum, the ___ peaks.Dry Matter Intake (DMI)
33.3%
What does NEFA stand for?Non-Esterified Fatty Acid
33.3%
The average dairy cow loses 30-100kg in the first _ months of lactation?2
33.3%
If NEFAs cannot all be transported into mitochondria of hepatocyes, they are re-esterified into triglycerdies and packaged into?very low density lipoproteins
33.3%
What happens if triglycerides are forced to accumualte in the cytoplasm of hepatoctes because enough VLDLs cannot be generated?hepatic lipidosis
33.3%
True or false: all cows get fat accumulation and ketosis during late gestation and periparturient period?false, all cows get fat accumulation in the liver, not all cows get ketosis
33.3%
Hint Answer % Correct
True or false: ideally all cows would be fat close-up to parturition, so they have lots of energy stores when they decrease dry matter intake?false, you want cows 3-3.5 out of 5 on BCS. Fat increases risk for ketosis and hepatic lipidosis.
33.3%
Pregnancy toxemia most frequently occurs in ewes with this increased source of riskcarrying twins
33.3%
Which of the following is nto a clinical sign of uncomplicated clinical ketosis?e), although animals may be dull OR exhibit 'nervous ketosis,' the TPR is supposed to be normal without concurrent infection causing pyrexia or endotoxemiaf
33.3%
True or false: Every vet worth their salt should be able to diagnose ketosis by odour of milk, breath, or urine?false, only half the population can smell them.
33.3%
Which of the following is not a differential for nervous ketosis?c), hypocalcemia is a differential for some clinical signs
33.3%
Which of the following is not a clinical sign of nervous ketosis?b), the animal may also be belligerent, and suffer from cortical blindness which is alleviated with treatment. Permanent blindness is rare
33.3%
True or false: Cows suffering from hepatic lipidosis have similar clinical signs as with ketosis, but more severe.True, also an increased susceptibility to endotoxins, due likely to fat accumulation in kupffer cells of the liver
33.3%
Between 1400 and 3000 umol/L of Beta-OH butyrate would be ______ ketosissubclinical
33.3%
____ levels of ketones will be half that of serum, ____ levels will be 2-20x as high.milk
33.3%
urine
33.3%
Milk tests for ketones have moderate _____ and high _____sensitivity
33.3%
specificity
33.3%
If I had to choose a screening test and a confirm test for ketones, I'd test _____ to screen and ____ to confirm.urine
33.3%
milk or blood
33.3%
True or false: you may see leukocytosis and left shift due to hepatic lipidosis?false, leukopenia and left shift due to decreased immune function of kuffer cells, predisposition to mastitis, metritis
33.3%
Which of the following would you not use to test the liver of a cow if you suspected hepatic lipidosis?d), all cows have some fat infiltration into hepatocytes during late gestation
33.3%
Which of the following would not likely form a part of your treatment plan for mild clinical ketosis?a), hepatic lipidosis is harder to treat and may require dextrose infusions, along with force feeding, insulin and rumen transfaunation, plus nursing care. PEM in beef cows and pregnancy toxemia also require IV fluids and dextrose support.
33.3%
True or false: C-section is indicated in PEM but not pregnancy toxemia?false, it's indicated in both after stabilization
33.3%
Which of the following has the worst prognosis?e) PEM has the worst along with pregnancy toxemia of ewes. Hepatic lipidosis is guarded, other three are good
33.3%
Nutritional myopathy is a condition that arises when dams are fed a diet deficient in what?Vitamin E and or Selenium
33.3%
True or false: Nutritional myopathy mainly affects 2-4 month old animals, rarely adults?True, perinatal cases are slightly more common than general adult cases, but the main victims are young rapidly growing animals.
33.3%
Which of the following is not a risk factor for selenium deficiency?c), heat drying, ensiling and prolonged storage of feed tend to inactivate vitamin E, the others are risk factors for selenium deficiency
33.3%
True or false: white muscle disease can affect the skeletal muscles or the myocrdium causing acute heart failure?true, will be bilaterally symmetrical when affecting skeletal muscles, and affect type I most
33.3%
What two muscle enzymes will be elevated to aid in diagnosis of nutritional myodegeneration?Creatine kinase (CK)
33.3%
aspartate aminotransferase (AST)
33.3%
True or false: the onset of white muscle disease is more or less random?false, tends to happen due to stress or exercise.
33.3%
6-8
22.2%
Where in the bowel does calcium absorption mainly occur?proximal small intestine, decreased DMI at parturition can decrease calcium, which decreases intestinal motility, and exacerbates the hypocalcemia
22.2%
_____ ______ is lowest in potassium compared to ____ which are high in it.corn silage
22.2%
With positive response to calcium therapy, the animal should immediate have ____ _____, and stand within _ hours.muscle tremors
22.2%
_____ _______ in propylene glycol is a good oral calcium treatment to help prevent relapses.calcium propionate
22.2%
forages
22.2%
You have just successfully treated a cow for hypomagnesemic tetany. What should you supplement her herd mates with? What should you treat her with to prevent relapse?oral magnesium supplements
22.2%
subcutaneous magnesium
22.2%
Within minutes PTH exerts its effect on the _____, the effect on _____ takes dayskidney
22.2%
What is the term meaning the process of filling the udder with air to reduce milk production? (A treatment for hypocalcemia)udder insufflation
22.2%
True or false: a low concentration of magnesium in the urine is abnormal and indicative of hypermagenesemia?false, if there is none it indicates hypomagnesemia, healthy animals secrete small amounts in urine
22.2%
Which of the VFAs is the most important? Why?propionate
22.2%
Please name all the components that come out of triglycerides at the level when glucose is produced (i.e. what are NEFAs made into)? Glucose
22.2%
Acetoacetate
22.2%
acetone
22.2%
beta-hydroxybutyrate
22.2%
use
22.2%
Of the components of VLDLs, which one is hypothesized to be insufficient when fatty liver occurs?lipoprotein
22.2%
Hepatic lipidosis is likely to occur in the ____ week after calving, associated with another disease causing anorexia, whereas ketosis will present in the ____ or ____ week after cfirst
22.2%
Ketosis and _______ _______ go hand in hand in the post-partum period.displaced abomasum
22.2%
_______ frequency of feeding is better for optimal rumen health?increased
22.2%
Hint Answer % Correct
Dry cow diets should contain at least _% protein (DM basis)8
22.2%
What condition are beef cows at highest risk for in winter, with inadequate feed supply or quantity, and when pregnant with twins?protein-energy malnutrition (PEM)
22.2%
What is the 'undetectable' decrease in milk associated with subclinical ketosis (in kg/day)?1.0-1.4
22.2%
Subclinical ketosis predisposes cows to this reproductive tract problem, as well as decreased cycling.cystic ovaries
22.2%
A realistic aim for subclinical ketosis prevalence in a high producing dairy herd is under __ percent?30
22.2%
An animal with clinical ketosis will gradually develop anorexia, starting with refusal to eat ____, then ____, then finally _____.grain
22.2%
silage
22.2%
forage
22.2%
ketolactia
22.2%
Cowside tests for ketonuria have high ______.sensitivity, but false positives are common. Specificity is increased by ignoring instructures and reading after 5 rather than 15 seconds.
22.2%
With _____ liver enzymes are normal, with _____ they are likely high?ketosis
22.2%
fatty liver (hepatic lipidosis)
22.2%
If given as a continuous rate infusion over 1-2 days, __% of IV dextrose stays in the cow.80
22.2%
Vitamin E acts as an ______ to prevent lipid hydroperoxide formation and prevent damage to lipid membranes and proteins.antioxidant
22.2%
Selenium acts as a coenzyme for ___-__ which destroys peroxides that have already formed?GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase)
22.2%
The following is a list of symptoms potentially assocaited with ________ _______periparturient syndrome, may also present with recumbency, anorexia, depression, tachycardia, dehydration.
11.1%
With metabolic alkalosis, PTH receptors won't function because?PTH can't bind
11.1%
Why would you administer anionic salts in a total mixed ration?because TMRs do not permit selectivity, and these salts are poorly palatable
11.1%
How long will response to magnesium treatment take with grass tetany?30-60 minutes
11.1%
Why might you hobble a cow's limbs when nursing it due to hypocalcemia?Prevent splayed limbs during attempts to stand
11.1%
What would one be attempting to do if adding zeolite or vegetable oils to the diet of a cow that will be calving out soon?reduce calcium absorption and prime the PTH response
11.1%
This ailment has been associated with hypophosphatemia, likely due to decreased ATP activity along RBC membranes, and disruption of osmotic gradient.intravascular hemolysis, post-parturient hemoglobinuria
11.1%
It is used directly for gluconeogenesis
11.1%
The liver of ruminants stores a small amount of this chemical, which is quickly depleted in the face of increased demands for energy.glycogen
11.1%
Some of the decrease in DMI in the peri-parturient period is explaiend by hormones, the rest by this?compression of the rumen by the expanding uterus
11.1%
In late gestation and early lactation the cow requires __-__% more energy than normal, and takes in __-__% less DMI.30-75
11.1%
20-40
11.1%
Ketosis occurs when _______ exceeds ____ as an ____ source.production
11.1%
energy source
11.1%
Name another tissue in which fat deposits will occur during hepatic lipidosis?cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle, adrenal glands, kidneys
11.1%
third or fourth
11.1%
Why does winter predipsose to ketosis?lack of exercise due to indoor tie stall housing, cannot burn off ketones
11.1%
Silage high in _____ acid can exacerbate ketosisbutyric
11.1%
A primary or accompanying disease entity exists in __-__% of all cases of ketosis30-40
11.1%
_______ may falsely increase the value for b-OH in serum, ______ may decrease it.hemolysis
11.1%
anti-coagulants
11.1%
Why would a test for muscle enzymes be indicated in a downer cow with hepatic lipidosis?to check if muscle necrosis has occurred due to pressure.
11.1%
Glycerol and sodium propionate are alternatives to this oral source of propionate?propylene glycol. (Remember that more is not better- you can change the rumen microenvironment and cause diarrhea, or even CNS depression and death with too much. 0.5 to 1 L once per day for 3-5 days.)
11.1%
What is a side effect of using dexamethasone to decrease tissue uptake of glucose?reduced milk production for up to 1 week
11.1%
In the cow, these three tissues do not require insulin.UDDER, brain and liver
11.1%
What additional effect might prompt one to treat neurological signs iwth chloral hydrate over an alpha 2?increased starch breakdown into propionate in the rumen
11.1%
What renal abnormality may be noticed with white muscle disease?myoglobinuria
11.1%
Even if an animal recovers from the skeletal form, what might they be chronically affected by?muscle fibrosis
11.1%
What kind of diet should be avoided during the dry cow period to avoid alkalosis?high potassium (high cations)
0%
Please give two other names for nutritional myopathy?white muscle disease and nutritional myodegeneration
0%

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Created Nov 13, 2013ReportNominate
Tags:disorder

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