Science Quiz / Lab evaluations including urinary

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Can you name the Lab evaluations including urinary

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What is the approximate volume in mL of urine that should be produced /kg/day?
 
Pale yellow to amber urine would be considered _____. Red-brown would likely contain _____ or _____.
 
 
Red urine would be associated with __________ or _____. Dark yellow, amber or brown urine would likely be due to _________
 
 
If you're smelling the urine of you're patients, you're likely checking for these three chemicals?
 
 
 
For what value is a urine dipstick apparently useful in people but not animals?
It varies based on molecular size, weight, number, and is commonly measured via refractometer. 
If urine is not tested when fresh or properly refrigerated, one would expect the pH to go ____.
 
Only ____ ______ are expected to have urine pH 7-8.5.
 
True or false: sugars other than glucose may give false positives on glucosuria tests?
 
A USG of 1.030-1.065 would be considered _________.
May be associated with diabeetus. 
Isosthenuria would be a specific gravity of _____ to _____. This is can occur after the loss of _ out of _ functioning nephrons.
Could also be a chance finding in a healthy animal. 
 
A USG of less than _____ is considered hyposthenuria.
 
What substance might be associated with a false negative glucosuria test if the glucose concentration was low and it was present?
Use the copper reduction method to avoid false negatives due to this substance. 
Urine protein tests are most sensitive to ______.
 
Which ketone is not detected on ketone urine dipsticks?
 
Which drug class may give a false positive when present in urine being tested for bilirubin?
 
1+ bilirubin is normal in the urine of healthy ______.
 
The bilirubin urine test measures ________ bilirubin.
 
A positive ketonuria test indicates excessive ____ metabolism or deficiency in ________ metabolism.
 
 
Ascorbic acid and formalin may both give false negatives and disinfectants may give false positives when testing urine for?
 
What test might you use to confirm proteinuria after a semiquantitative dipstick test?
 
Which of the following would NOT potentially give a false positive for proteinuria if present in urine?
a)low pH b)x ray contrast medium c)penicillin d)disinfectant residue e)none of the above 
The urine is a clear red colour, and the AST and CK are elevated. What do you suspect more strongly?
 
More than 4-5 erythrocytes per HPF indicates ______, whereas more than 5-8 leukocytes would indicate __________
 
 
What is the term for increased nonprotein nitrogen sources (e.g. urea, creatinine) in the blood?
 
________ syndrome is a disease of the proximal renal tubules which causes lack of reabsorption of numerous substances.
Associated with cystine crystals in the urine, as is congenital cystinuria of dogs. 
_________ diffuses into total body water more slowly than _____ because it is a larger molecule.
 
 
In what group of species can urea be metabolized by GI flora?
 
Which of the following is NOT a reason for elevated BUN?
a)decreased functional hepatic mass b)increased dietary protein c)catabolism of body tissues d)decreased GFR e)hyperadrenocorticism  
Which of the following can influence serum creatinine?
a)tubular reabsorption rate b)dietary influence c)protein catabolism d)overall muscle mass e)metabolism in rumen 
Decreased creatinine is rarely clinically significant. It may, however, indicate?
 
Which of hte following is not a prerenal cause of azotemia?
a)dehydration b)shock c)decreased dietary protein d)increased protein catabolism e)CV disease 
True or false: prerenal, renal or postrenal azotemia may all be mild-marked?
 
Hypersthenuria woudl be associated with ______ causes of azotemia, wheras persistant isosthenuria would be associated with ______ and variable specific gravities might go with ____
 
 
 
Which of the following may NOT be decreased with renal dysfunction?
a)serum calcium b) serum phosphorus c)serum potassium d)serum albumin e)none of the above 
Name a cause of postrenal azotemia?
 
Azotemia of a renal origin only appears with loss of over __ percent of nephrons?
 
What is the best time to collect companion animal urine free catch?
 
What kind of contamination is possible with catheterization?
 
This method of urine collection is prone to containing microscopic hemorrhage, but free from genital contamination.
 
what will likely be present if the urine is collected off the floor or table?
 
_____ _____ of urine is inversely related to _______
Exceptions include diabetes mellitus which has increases of both, turbid urine, decreased temperature, abnormal pigments, increases in glucose or protein. 
 
What two tests are semi quantitative for urine protein?
 
 
In quantitative urine protein tests, the expected values are under 0.5 and the abnormal values are over ___
 
Which of the following conditions would you not associate with glucosuria and hyperglycemia?
a)diabetes mellitus b)severe pancreatitis c)epinephrine response d)excessive dietary carbohydrate e)hypoadrenocorticism 
Which of the following conditions would you associate with ketonuria?
a)bovine early lactation b)pregnancy toxemia of ewes c)diabetes mellitus d)fasting e)all of the above 
What potential finding in urine is light sensitive and degrades quickly?
 
Which of the following conditions would you not associate with bilirubinuria?
a)hepatocellular disease b)cholestasis c)diabetes d)hemolytic anemia e) none of the above 
True or false: # of urinary casts is correlated with disease severity?
 
What form of crystals in dog urine is strongly indicative of ethylene glycol toxicity?
 
Fat droplets are common in the urine of ____, mucous and a dark colour in ______.
 
 
What is the minimum and ideal number of healthy individuals tested to establish reference intervals?
You'll get central 95% of values. 
 
Which of the following is not a characteristic of an ideal diagnostic enzyme?
a)detectible serum activity b)easy assay c)multiple tissue sources, so it's always useful d)altered activity correlated to clinical disease processes 
______ assays monitor at multiple points as a product is created, ___ ____ assays make a single measure at a predetermined time
 
 
Which of the following is not a source of ALP?
a)steroid treatment in dogs b)bile duct epithelium c)hepatocytes d)intestinal epithelium e)osteoblasts 
Which of the following enzymes wouldn't be associated with canine hepatocytes?
a)GLDH b)SDH c)AST d)ALT e)GGT 
____ comes from hepatocytes and skeletal myocytes. _____ has similar sources, as well as cardiac myocytes and RBCs.
 
 
_______ regulates fluid volume by changes in sodium, ___ controls osmolality through changes in water balance.
 
 
A normal osmolar gap is less than __
 
A patient presents with hyperosmolality, and an increased osmolar gap. Which is not a differential?
a)hyperglycemia b)ethylene glycol toxicity c)methanol toxicity d)aldehydes e)mannitol 
Heparinized plasma is in a _____ tube.
 
Acidemia is associated with ____kalemia.
 
Which of the following is not associated with hyperkalemia?
a)urinary tract disease b)addison's c)acidemia d)anorexia e)hemolysis 
Hypochloremia can occur through _____ _______ in ruminants or ______ in monogastrics?
 
 
TCO2 is mainly in the form of _____-
 
Which of the following is NOT a source of metabolic acidosis?
a)increased ketones b)increased pCO2 c)lactic acid buildup d)uremic acid buildup e)ethylene glycol or salicylate toxicity 
True or false: both diarrhea nad ileus can lead to metabolic acidosis through loss of base?
 
Vomiting can lead to _______ ________
 
_______ ______ happens in metabolic alkalosis through the following steps:
volume and sodium depletion, kidneys reabsorb sodium, kidney also reabsorbs bicarbonate and chlorine is low, this exacerbates metabolic alkalosis... 
Hyperventilation would be associated with _____ _______, hypoventilation with ______ _______
 
 
Hyperproteinemia tends to ______ the anion gap.
 
Apparent SID is equal to the concentrations of these two ions added and this one subtracted.
____ and ____ 
____ 
Acidosis occurs when the SID is less than ___ mmol/L, alkalosis when it's over __.
 
 
With mixed disturbances, Anion Gap _____
 
What hormone promotes calcium release from bone and retention by kidneys, renal Phosphorus excretion and calcitriol formation?
 
Intestinal phosphorus and calcium absorption is increased by _______
 
______ serves to decrease calcium release from bone
 
PTHrP is secreted by some tumors and maintains _____ calcium balance
 
Which of the following would NOT be decreased with hypercalcemia?
a)calcitonin secretion b)PTH secretion c)calcitriol secretion d)phosphorus levels, in some cases 
__% of blood calcium is ionized, __ percent protein bound and _% complexed
 
 
 
Which of the following conditions would you not associate with hypocalcemia?
a)hypoalbuminemia b)pancreatitis c)renal failure d)thymoma e)hypoparathyroidism 
Which of the following conditins would you not associate with hypercalcemia?
a)equine renal disease b)vit D toxicosis c)osteolytic bone lesions d)primary hyperparathyroidism e)hyperadrenocorticism 
DKA, vit D deficiency, parturient paresis of cattles, and early hyperparathyroidism are all causes of this rare condition
Refers to the concentration of a substance in the blood. 
If there is any regulation for this ion at all, it might be PTH. That's questionable though.
 
Which of the following conditions would you not associate with Hypocholesterolemia?
a)Cushing's b)portosystemic shunt c)decreased liver mass d)Protein losing enteropathy 

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