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Can you name the GIT Infectious Diseases Arroyo

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True or false: BVDV can affect the respiratory system?
 
True or false: the most virulent strains of BVDV in vivo are non-cytopathic (NCP) in vitro?
 
Which genotype of BVDV is more virulent, causing hemorrhagic syndrome, thrombocytopenia and death?
 
True or false: acutely infected animals are the main source of infection in BVDV?
 
Name two methods of transmission for BVD?
 
 
Which of the following fluids would you not associate high amounts of NCP-BVD with?
a)ocular discharge b)nasal discharge c)sweat d)saliva e)semen f)feces g)urine h)milk i)blood j)none of the above 
Where is the BVD virus most likely to initially replicate before viremia occurs?
 
Which of the following tissues is unlikely to be affected by BVDV?
a)reproductive tissues b)fetal tissues c)GI mucosa d)intestinal crypts e)peripheral lymphoid tissue f)pituitary gland g)pancreas h)bone marrow i)all of the above are likely 
70-90% of BVDV infections occur subclinically. What might you notice if you paid super careful attention?
 
Acute infection will occur in immuno-competent cattle of _-__ months of age, after 1 week incubation?
Fever, leukopenia, depression, ocular discharge, oral erosions/ulcerations, drop in milk production and diarrhea are to be expected. 
Post natal infection with type 2 or type 1 BVDV can produce severe acute infection. Name the clinical signs?
 
What presentation of BVDV is being described in the hint?
Bloody diarrhea, epistaxis, hemorrhage on mucosal surfaces, bleeding from injection sites, thrombbocytopenia, leukopenia, hyphema, pyrexia, death.  
Name one of the two main viruses that BVDV is synergistic with in promoting BRD?
Mannheimia haemolytica is a major bacterial cause of UBRD that BVD is also synergistic with. 
True or false: viral shedding of bvdv in semen may extend beyond viremia?
 
Fetal infection with bvdv between __ and ___ days of gestation causes fetal death.
Abortions may happen later in term, but rarely. 
Name a differential for BVDV hemorrhagic syndrome?
 
When should calves be tested to check if they are BVDV seropositive, if you are screening?
These calves, though normal, tend to be weak. 
BVDV is most likely to act as a teratogen between day ___ and ___ of gestation.
May have effects on the nervous system or eyes, cause thymic aplasia, growth retardation or hypotrichosis. 
Please name a nervous system effect of BVDV in a teratogenic capacity?
I am looking for developmental anomalies- signs may include ataxia, reluctance or inabiliyt to stand, wide based stance, inability to suckle, intention tremors 
Which of the following is not an ocular symptom of bvdv in calves?
a) retinal atrophy or dysplasia b)cataracts c)microphthalmia d) hypoplasia of optic tract e)none of the above 
What is a congenital musculoskeletal defect other than growth retardation associated with BVDV?
 
Past 175 days in gestation, when infected with BVDV what is the likely outcome for the calf?
 
Immunotolerance is rare after 100 days of gestation, but can occur up to day ___?
Consistent shedding. Prevalence between 0.1 and 1%. Calves are undersized, slow growth, predisposed to enteritis and pneumonia, unresposive to treatment. Altered neutrophil and lymphocyte function. 
True or false: Persistently infected females may create 'family lines' of PI calves?
 
True or false: a persistently infected animal with NCP biotype BVDV could develop mucosal disease in an absence of other pathogens?
 
With which form of mucosal disease would you associte the following signs?
Near 100% mortality, 10-14 day incubation period, biphasic fever, anorexia, tachycardia and polypnea, decreased milk production, blunted papilla, ulcers of tongue, palate, buccal surfaces and pharnx, diarrhea with frank blood, fibrinous casts and foul smell. 
The ultimate goal of BVD vaccination (6-14 months old prior to breeding) is?
 
How many doses are preferable with a killed vaccine for BVDV prior to breeding?
Duration of immunity will be short regardless, and yearly boosters necessary. 
Which of the following is not an advantage of killed vaccines?
a)can be used in pregnant animals b)doesn't cause immunosuppression c)low cost d)replication can spread immunity amongst the herd e)no reports of post vaccinal disease 
One IM or SQ injection of an MLV BVD vaccine made from cytopathic type 1 strains will produce antibodies in this many weeks.
in 90-95% of animals. 
Which of the following is not a disadvantage of MLV BVD vaccines?
a)sporadic post-vaccinal mucosal disease b)short duration of effect c)reproductive failure in some cases after vaccination d)immunosuppression e)contamination with NCP-BVDV 
The following clinical signs would be associated with?
Mucosal petechiae, panmyelophthisis, bleeding after injections, variable blood in feces, spontaneous cutaneous hemorrhage, severe secondary infections due to thrombocopenia and leukopenia. Mothers vaccinated with PregSure BVD vaccine. 
True or false: malignant catarrhal fever is associated with two different types of herpesviruses, clinically indistinguishable?
 
Which form of MCF is more likely to affect zoologic or wild animal parks, or African herds? Which one is worldwide?
 
 
Incubation of MCF is usually 3-10 weeks, but may be as long as ___ days?
 
What distinguishes the mild form of MCF from BVDV?
 
True or false: With MCF there will initially be a leukocytosis, then a leukopenia due to neutropenia?
 
True or false: MCF, like vampires, is quickly destroyed by the light of the sun?
 
Name a bodily fluid in which rinderpest virus would be contained?
 
What part of the lmphoid tissue is most affected by rinderpest?
 
What are the 3 Ds of rinderpest?
___, ___ and ____. Other clinical signs include oral lesions, purulent lacrimation (part of one of the Ds), dry nose, anorexia, fever, depresion, dehydration (not one of the Ds) and emaciation. 
The incubation period ranges from 3-15 days, most commonly _-_ days.
 
Which of the following is NOT a differential diagnosis for the classical presentation of rinderpest?
Peste des petits ruminants, paratuberculosis, salmonellosis, ETEC, bluetongue, foot and mouth disease, MCF, BVDV, IBR 
True or false: the majority of salmonella serotypes are host adapted?
 
True or false: salmonella may be airborne?
 
An animal carying salmonella in the lymph nodes and tonsils but not shedding is a _____ carrier. Shedding= _____ carrier.
 
 
What strain of salmonella (recall named from place first discovered) is host adapted to cattle?
Host adapted strains are more virulent, generally. 
What would characterize the neutropenia associated with salmonellosis?
Accompanied by a leukopenia, hyponatremia, mild hypokalemia and hypoproteinemia (protein-losing enteropathy) 
Which of the following antibiotics is most likely to be effective against salmonellosis?
a)tetracycline b)TMS c)erythromycin d)penicillin e)none of the above 
Which of the following is not a clinical finding associated with salmonella dublin?
a)Septicemia b)acute enteritis c)chronic enteritis d)terminal dry gangrene of the extremities e)abortion f)all of the above are clinical findings associated with S dublin. 
What is the most likely DDx for the septicemic form of salmonellosis?
 
Name a differential for acute enteric salmonellosis?
 
Which of the following is not a DDx for chronic salmonellosis?
a)Johne's disease b)chronic molybdenum poisoning c)coccidiosis d)massive stomach fluke infections e)all of the above are DDx for chronic salmonellosis 
True or false: salmonella does not survive long in the environment?
 
This agent is the cause of winter dysentery, and has a tropism for intestinal and respiratory tract.
Fecal oral transmission mainly. 
True or false: winter dysentery has a high mortality, especially amongst calves?
 
True or false: winter dysentery tends to destroy the progenitor cells of the colonic crypts?
 
What is the likely etiology of volminous watery diarrhea associated with winter dysentery
 
How long would one expect dark green to black explosive liquid diarrhea with winter dysentery?
after 3-7 days incubation. other signs may include 2-3 days of nasolacrimal discharge and cough, fever, decreased production, brief anorexia, mild body weight loss. more rarely see dehydration, weakness, dysentery with or without blood. 
Name a differential diagnosis for Winter dysentery?
 
These clinical signs would be associated with what disease?
Abdominal discomfort, ping and fluid splashing sounds in right abdomen, melena, depression, reduced amounts of dark feces, decreased feed intake and milk production, tachycardia, ruminal stasis, abdominal distension, distended loops of intestine on rectal palpation, small intestinal ileus and distension on U/S. 
What is the likely etiological agent of hemorrhagic bowel syndrome?
 
What is the pH range at which FMD virus can survive?
It survives in milk, bone marrow and lymph glands. 
Which of the following species is not affected by FMD?
a)cattle b)buffalo c)deer d)elephant e)hedgehog f)All of the above can be affected. 
True or false: foot and mouth disease is associated with high mortality?
Mortality due to culling doesn't count... it's probably 100% then if you're doing your job right. 
What is the name for skeletal and cardiac muscle degeneration due to foot and mouth disease?
May also see vesicle formation on mouth, teat, nares and feet(most likely), mouth and rumen pillars, sloughing of tissue. Replication in stratum spinosum. 
True or false: pasterurized milk products are guaranteed free from FMD, so one may safely use colostrum from an infected area?
 
What type of animal, when affected by foot and mouth disease, is an amplifier that does not carry the virus long term.
This animal is most severely affected on the feet, will tend to have snout vesicles and less likely oral ones. 
True or false: humans are asymptomatic carriers of FMDv for 1-2 days?
 
Read the scenario in the hint, and riddle me this: what animal might help you solve the uncertainty? (This isn't like, ethical, or recommended though, per se.)
You have a farm with pigs and cows. The pigs recently have become feverish and developed vesicles on their coronary band, interdigital spaces and in their oral cavities. Today a cow has become ill. How do you confirm this is merely vesicular stomatitis? 
Which of the following is not a DDx of FMDv for pigs?
a)vesicular stomatitis b)swine vesicular disease c)vesicular exanthema of swine d)bluetongue e)foot rot 
Which of the following is not an effective disinfectant against FMDv?
a)lye b)sodium carbonate 4% c)sodium hypochlorite 5.25% d)citric acid 0.2% e)all of the above would work without organic matter 
True or false: natural immunity to FMDv lasts way longer than vaccine-induced
 
True or false: isolation of the FMDv and identification fo serotype is essential, as you must choose the correct vaccine?
 
What is the primary reason, aside from cost-saving, why animals are not vaccinated in North America for FMD?
 
Which serotype of vesicular stomatitis is more virulent?
Two US states. 
True or false: the mortality rate is lower in vesicular stomatitis than FMD?
 
Which of the following is least likely to be associated with transmission of vesicular stomatitis?
a)milking machines b)direct oral mucosal rubbing c)sandflies d)black flies e)ingestion of associated diarrhea 
True or false: recovery from vesicular stomatitis should occur within a fortnight?
 
The direct cause of death in rare fatal cases of vesicular stomatitis would likely be?
 
True or false: vesicular stomatitis is a zoonotic disease, and is most often vesicular in humans as well?
 
There is an outbreak of papules on young cows. What do you hope it is, as opposed to the big baddies?
2 weeks to 2 years old, morbidity close to 100% in herd, no signs on feet, only in mouth. 
True or false: BPS may be transferred by insects as vesicular stomatitis is?
 
True or false: BPS oftent akes longer to heal than vesicular illnesses of a reportable n ature?
 
What is required for zoonotic transfer of BPS?
 
Dairy cattle between _ weeks and _ months old are typically most susceptible to coccidiosis?
_ weeks and _ months old 
What two species of the Eimeria genus cause severe clinical disease?
 
It takes 3-7 days for this to develop inside the cow and start coming out in poop to infect others?
 
What is the stage before the formation of macro and microgametocytes?
 
Which of the following is NOT a sign of coccidiosis?
a)bloody diarrhea b)watery diarrhea c)tenesmus d)dehydration e)occasionally death f)none of the above (they are all signs) 
True or false: with immunity to coccidia due to previous infection, cattle do not produce oocysts in their manure?
 
What would you expect to be affected by coccidia?
a)large intestinal crypt cells b)small intestinal crypt cells c)large intestinal epithelium d)small intestinal epithelium 
Ontario and the Maritimes tend to be more affected by _____ coccidiosis with high mortality.
 
BC, the prairies and Quebec tend to be more affected with ______ coccidiosis, which has lower mortality.
 
What other form may coccidia present in, aside from the most common enteric one?
UP to 50% mortality with this much rarer form. 
If you want to find evidence of oocysts, you would ideally take a sample _-_ days after diarrhea starts?
 
This thiamine antagonist retards generation of 1st gen schizonts in intestinal epithelium.
 
This drug aids in permitting normal epitheliogenesis.
 
What is the treatment for the rarer form (other than enteral) of coccidia?
 
True or false: unsporulated oocysts are not harmed by freezing?
 
Severe clinical disease is called Johne's disease. What is the condition of an affected animal with no clinical signs?
 
What is the causative agent of Johne's?
 
How long may the causative agent of Johne's persist in pasture without replicating?
If not affected by high pH, sunlight, drying, soil calcium content, contact with urine and feces. 
True or false: pasteurization destroys Johne's disease causative organism?
 
True or false: some animals infected with paratuberculosis do not shed or develop Johne's?
 
Up to __% of fetuses from cows with clinical paratuberculosis will be infected with the disease?
 
If an animal is infected as a calf from the mother, around what age will clinical signs likely emerge?
 
True or false: animals under 2 years of age, though in stage 1 (silent infection) may still shed MAP?
 
Which of the following symptoms would you associate with stage 4 but NOT stage 3?
a)diarrhea b)intermandibular edema (bottle jaw) c)decreased body weight d)decreased milk production e)none of the above 
Name a differential for Johne's disease?
 
What is the gold standard for Johne's diagnosis?
 
True or false: pure test and cull programs may be useful in the eradication of Johne's?
 
When is a cow most likely to test positive on Milk ELISA for Johne's?
Specificity is good on screening tests, sensitivity bad. Even if milk production is high, it's likely a true positive test. 
Which of the following IS affected by Johne's macroscopically?
a)small intestine b)cecum c)proximal colon d)distal colon e)regional lymph nodes f)all of the above g)all except for d 
Although no antimicrobial is approved for treatment of MAP, 600 mg daily for 10 months of this one showed clinical improvement.
 
True or false: vaccination against Johne's is effective?
 
_-_% less milk production might be expected with cows testing positive for Johne's on milk elisa?
 
What human disease is MAP associated with?
 

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