Science Quiz / Genital surgeries

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Can you name the Urogenital surgeries

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At around what age would you typically perform ovariohysterectomy?
This is also the typical age for castration in the male. 
The ovarian arteries emerge from the aorta. The left ovarian vein drains into the _____, the right ovarian drains into the ______.
 
 
The ovarian vessels are contained within fat and collectively termed?
Usually more fat in canines. 
One should visually divide the caudal abdomen (just caudal to umbilicus) into thirds. Which third do you incise for dogs? For cats?
In both cases, use a ventral midline approach through the linea alba. 
 
To use a spay hook correctly, start on the ____ side of the abdomen, facing the wall, then turn 180* in the ____ direction to avoid _____ vessels.
 
 
 
If you feel resistance, stop pulling on the spleen hook. You have probably caught the _____ ligament.
 
You should cut this ligament as close to the body wall as possible to avoid the vascular pedicle.
You may wish to place mosquito forceps on the proper ligament to help handle the ovary. 
How many clamps should you apply to the pedicle after creating a window in the broad ligament, before ligation?
 
True or false: 0 size suture is the standard choice for ligation of most pedicles? (Absorbable)
 
True or false: one should always use a surgeons throw first when ligating an ovarian pedicle?
 
True or false: You put one circumferential suture between C1 and C2, and one transfixing (for large dogs) or circumferential between C2 and C3?
 
The modified 3 clamp technique places C3 on the ______ ______ instead of closest to the ovary on pedicle.
 
The inclusion of _____ in your ligatures can lead to loosening later on, and is more likely with the right ovarian pedicle.
 
True or false: in small patients with thin, nonvascular broad ligaments, you may simply tear them.
 
To ligate the uterine body, you should aim for just cranial to this structure?
 
True or false: clamping is never advisible in a canine uterus prior to the first crushing ligature?
 
Urinary incontinence after spaying is most likely in this species
 
The use of nonabsorable sutures can lead to this complication of spaying?
 
If an animal comes back into heat after spaying, there is likely an _____ _____
 
When addressing a dropped or bleeding pedicle, it is important to not damage this structure in your haste to clamp?
 
To expose ovaries or a bleeding pedicle, you shoudl elevate the ______ ont he left and the ________ on the right.
 
 
A _____ pyometra typically has more systemic signs?
This type is an indication for an ovariohysterectomy ASAP. 
Name an indication for a caesarian section?
 
True or false: the placenta should always be removed during C section?
 
How many layers of closure after C section, for the uterus?
 
Which of the following uterine condition would you NOT treat with OHE?
a)uterine trauma or rupture b)uterine torsion c)uterine neoplasia d)uterine prolapse e)all of the above can be treated by OHE 
An episiotomy is most similar to this procedure often performed on horses with poor perineal conformation?
 
Name the four main differential diagnoses for a vaginal mass or protrusion?
 
 
 
 
What is the smart differential to think of with regards to an older female canine presenting with a vaginal mass?
 
Which of the following is not a way to prioritize your differentials for vaginal mass or protrusion?
a)age b)oestral cycle and regression c)palpation or probing d)location of base and shape e)all of the above can be used to differentiate. 
Which of the following is not characteristic of vaginal edema or hyperplasia?
a)edema at proestrus or estrus b)typically involving the vaginal floor c)hyperemia at estrus or proestrus d)typically circumferential on palpation e)stalk anchored cranial to the urethral papilla  
True or false: vaginal edema is best treated with OHE?
 
Which of the following is NOT characteristic of vaginal prolapse?
a)relatively rare occurrence b)can occur simultaneously with vaginal edema c)typically palpable circumferentially d)may potentially be treated with manual reduction, but still warrants OHE e)is fixed only through surgical reduction or amputation  
True or false: vaginal prolapse is hereditary to some degree and likely to recur even with surgical resection?
 
What surgical procedure would you follow to correct an involuted vagina?
 
What do you prevent by avoiding clipping the scrotum of a male dog prior to castration?
Instead clip only the prescrotal region. 
True or false: you should not include the prepuce or scrotum in the surgery site?
 
Which method of castration is generally considered safer?
 
Incise the skin directly over the testical after pushing it up through the drape. This technique prevents injury to this structure.
 
What structure is incised after the skin in an open castration technique?
 
The vaginal tunic attaches to the ____ of the ______.
You must place a hemostatic clamp across the tunic where it attaches, and digitally separate them. 
True or false: the vagina tunic's attachment at the tail of the epididymis tends to bleed a lot and always requires ligation?
 
True or false: you can double or triple clamp before applying 2 ligatures, but you should always include the ductus deferens and the pampiniform in a dog castration?
 
What is the absolute furthest two sutures should be apart?
in cm, to one decimal place. 
After double ligation, you cut between C_ and C_.
_, _ 
True or false: the vaginal tunic needs to be closed in one single layer in open dog castration?
 
How many bites in each knot when closing subcutaneously after canine castration?
Or how many structures must each loop of a simple continuous pass through? 
You may choose to close skin in any of 3 technique, one of which requires you to bury the knot. Name any of them, put an asterisk after the one which requires knot burying.
 
Of all complications of canine castration, which is considered normal?
 
This complication of canine castration would result from a slipped ligature or small bleeding vessels?
 
This more severe complication of ligature slips is trouble.
 
True or false: an E collar is recommended until suture removal?
 
How do you remove the scrotal hair for a feline castration?
 
What are the two methods of open feline castration?
 
True or false: you separate the ductus and the vessels then ligate each indivdually, then transect the ductus close to the testicle and begin to make square knots?
Regarding the multiple knot technique for feline castration. 
What suture patterns do you use in feline castration closure?
 
True or false: there is no predisposition for which testicle fails to descend, but unilateral cryptorchidism is more common than bilateral.
 
True or false: testicles that are cryptorchid are nearly 15x more likely to become neoplastic?
 
Suppose I have a gorgeous male pug whom I wish to breed. He is one in a million. His only flaw is that he has ONE cryptorchid testicle.
Of course I'll have that crytorchid testicle removed, no doubt about that. Then I'm good to go ahead and breed him right? 
True or false: one should always start with the cryptorchid testicle?
When castrating. 
What is apparently a common enough surgical error during cryptorchid testicle hunts to be mentioned as unacceptable?
 
Name one of the two structures you can follow like a rail of breadcrumbs to your lost little cryptorchid?
 
True or false: when removing a cryptorchid it is best to ligate both the vascular plexus and the ductus deferens separately?
 
Painful, swollen, or discoloured scrotum, shock and acute abdomenal signs can all be indicative of this?
More common with cryptrochids or neoplasia. 
True or false: Interstitial/Leydig cell tumours, Sertoli cell tumours and seminoma are equally frequent occurrences?
 
True or false: castration is recommended with scrotal ablation, regardless of cause?
Lacerations, dermatitis, neoplasia, older age castration of large dogs and scrotal urethrostomy may all cause this. 
Name a sign of prostatic disease?
 
Pick out one of the top two most important diagnostic techniques for prostatic disease (all are legit).
Palpation (abdominal and rectal are separately ranked), CBC, biochemistry profile, urinalysis, radiography, contrast radiography, ultrasound, cytology, culture and sensitivity, biopsy, histopathology 
Which of the following differentials for prostatomegaly would you consider developmental?
a)benign prostatic hyperplasia b)paraprostatic cysts c)prostatic abscess d)prostatic neoplasia e)prostatic retention cysts 
Which is the most common canine prostatic disorder?
a)benign prostatic hyperplasia b)paraprostatic cysts c)prostatic abscess d)prostatic neoplasia e)prostatic retention cysts 
This prostatic ailment communicates with prostatic parenchyma, is associated with BPH, and can become infected, forming an abscess.
Treatment is castration with or without drainage as necessary. 
What is the prognosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia after castration?
This condition affects 80% of intact males over 5 or 6 years old. 
What may coalesce to form large abscesses in the prostate?
Most commonly will isolate E coli. 
Which statement is inaccurate regarding prostatic abscesses?
a)they are likely associated with BPH b)they may cause constipation if large enough c)you may see penile discharge in association d)treatment with TMS is best e)may present with UTI, caudal abdominal pain f)may rupture to cause peritonitis, septicemia and rapid death 
What is the therapy for severe prostatitis due to abscess?
 
True or false: complete prostatectomy involves leaving only the capsule and is not recommended.
 
This structure may be utilized to create biological drainage from cystic or abscessed tissue, enhances local immune function and blood supply.
 
True or false: prostatectomies are referral surgeries.
 
These cysts are typically adjacent to the prostate but not communicating with it.
Castration will not treat it, and drainage alone will typically end in recurrence. The prostate should be partially resected and omentalized. 
True or false: prostatic neoplasia is not prevented by castration, but it rarely metastasizes?
 
Name a palliative therapy associated with the treatment of prostatic neoplasia.
 

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