Science Quiz / Food Animal Abdominal Surgery

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Can you name the Food Animal Abdominal Surgery

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What is the name of the cavity between the superficial and deep wall of the greater omentum?
 
The superficial wall of the omentum runs from the ___ _____ ____ of the rumen, then moves ventrally and to the right.
On the other side it attaches to the greater curvature of the abomasum, caudal surface of cranial duodenum,a nd ventral surface of descending duodenum. 
In a newborn cow, what is the size ratio between abomasum and rumen? (_:_)
By eight weeks the two are equal size. 
By __ weeks old the rumen is 3x the size of the abomasum, and in a fully grown cow the rumen is __x the size of the abomasum
 
 
In an adult cow, what percent of the abdomen is filled by the rumen?
 
The cranial sac of the rumen communicates via the ______-_____ ______ with the reticulum.
 
In which direction does the apex of the bovine face?
 
At the caudal flexure of the ascending duodenum, this is a prominent attachemtn to descending colon and peritoneal surface.
 
An adult cow's jejunum is this many meters long.
 
The ileum is attached to the ventral surface of the cecum by this?
 
In which direction does the greater curvature of the cecum face? (the side opposite the ileum)
 
The short mesenteries of all these keep them tightly apposed except?
a)ascending duodenum b)proximal and distal loop of ascending colon c)transverse colon d)distal jejunum e)cranial descending colon 
How many centripetal coils are there in the spiral colon of a cow? Centrifugal?
 
 
Where is the best sight to make your incision for general surgical exploration?
 
Which of the following would you not expect to find outside of the omental sling in the cranial abdomen?
a)cranial and descending duodenum b)omasum c)abomasum d)reticulum e)liver and gall bladder f)all of the above should be there 
What is the term for the thumb-sized tag in the greater omentum 4-15cm caudal to pylorus of abomasum?
 
What forestomach compartment is probably most often misdiagnosed as impacted due to very firm contents?
 
Which of the following would you not expect to find inside the omental bursa?
a)small intestine b)cecum c)descending colon d)ascending colon 
What lies dorsal to the cranial descending duodenum and to the right of the mesoduodenum?
 
Where does the left kidney hang out?
 
What may make palpation of intestinal viscera near-impossible?
 
True or false: severe colic would be characterized in cows with frequent kicking at abdomen, jumping up and down constantly and lying in lateral?
 
How often should you hear the primary cycle of the rumen and reticulum? The seocndary cycle of the rumen?
mixing ingesta, forcing into omasum 
forcing fluid ventrally and gas cranially for eructation. 
Which is not a differential for a left sided ping?
a)cecal dilatation b)pneumoperitoneum c)ruminal tympany d)LDA e)all of these are 
Reduced amounts of glistening, greasy feces might indicate what?
Might also be indicated by alternating diarrhea and dry feces 
What is the most common surgical approach?
Would be performed on a standing animal, under regional or local anesthesia, and sedation, rarely GA. 
Which of the following problems would likely be corrected by a left sided paralumbar fossa flank incison?
a)something requiring a rumenotomy b)TRP c)LDA d)left sided urogenital disease e)c section f)all of the above 
Why do most clinicians prefer to perform c section from the left side rather than the right?
 
Describe the pattern and suture used for closure of the peritoneum, transverse abdominis, internal and external abdominal obliques?
pattern, general type, size 
What is the recommended suture pattern, general type and size of suture recommended for skin closure?
 
Which of the following is not an advantage of paralumbar incision?
a)can be performed on a standing animal b)easy to explore entire abdomen, particularly right sided c)best incision for extremely large or monstrous fetuses c section d)normal relationships of viscera more easily determined than with others e)all of these are advantages 
What would your preferred surgical approach be for an animal that requires intestinal resection and anastomoses?
 
What layer of muscle in the abdominal wall would run from the direction of the ribs down towards the hind legs? (caudoventral)
 
What is it called if you cut each layer of muscle separately in the direction the fibres run?
This technique combines sharp and blunt dissection, used on different levels. 
Which layer of muscle is the holding layer in most abdominal incisions?
 
Name a disadvantage of the mid to low flank incision compared to paralumbar incisions?
 
For ventrolateral oblique flank incision, your cut should begin ventral to ____ ______ and dorsal to _____
 
 
For ventrolateral oblique flank incision, you should mark the location of this vulnerable antatomical landmark with sutures first while the animal is standing.
It's difficult to see while the animal is in lateral recumbency. 
What is really the only good reason to select ventrolateral oblique flank incision?
 
This type of incision is between the umbilicus and the subcutaneous abdominal vein on whichever side is relevant.
The cow must be in dorsal recumbency. 
What layer is the holding layer for paramedian incisions?
 
True or false: paramedian incisions tend to be stronger than midline ones?
 
In young calves, this incision may be good for diagnostic laparotomy.
It is also useful for urogenital diseases in some cases, disorders of the umbilicus, and occasionally c section. 
Name an indication for rumenotomy?
 
How many layers should you use to close a rumen? What suture pattern for the outside one?
 
 
Why is it important to explore the abdomen before moving forward if you are performing rumenotomy?
 
If an intra-abdominal abscess is firmly adhesed to the omasum or reticulum, you drain where? if not?
 
 
True or false: two anchor sutures should be sufficient for rumenotomy, as with a small animal gastrotomy?
 
Chronic vagal indigestion, and failure of eructation due to a space occupying lesion are the main indications for this procedure.
This does not refer to punching the rumen a whole bunch of times. 
Which of the following is not a contributing risk factor towards abomasal displacement?
a)breeding to give more milk b)excessive exercise as a beef cow c)recumbency d)decreased motility due to high concentrate, low fibre diet e)lymphosarcoma 
What kind of DA is most common (85% of all displacements)
Usually doesn't cause complete obstruction, most commonly 1-6 weeks postpartum. Associated with lower milk production, decreased apetite, fecal output, mild diarrhea. 
When it is a prolonged condition, what would you not expect on lab results for an LDA?
a)hyperchloremia b)hypokalemia c)metabolic alkalosis d)dehydration e)none of the above 
What is the name for the test where you take a needle aspirate through the abdominal wall over a ping?
If pH is under 3, it's a displaced abomasum. 
True or false: Abnormalities in TPR would normally be associated with an RDA, not an LDA.
 
Which of the following surgical approaches would you not use for an abomasopexy?
a)left flank celiotomy b)right paramedian celiotomy c)right paramedian percutaneous technique d)right flank celiotomy e)none of the above 
What are two alternatives to abomasopexy that aren't as good?
____ and _____. Both are pexys, one is direct and one indirect. 
When performing abomasopexy, you want to avoid puncturing the _____ ____, and use ______ suture materials.
 
 
The best access for exploration of remaining GI tract is offered by this surgical approach to abomasopexy.
it would also be most recommended for RDA or RTA. 
The best direct access for cranial abdomen and abomasum for LDA is via this approach. Not recommended for RDA and RTA, though can be used.
This approach is 'best' for abomasopexy. 
True or false: Right paramedian percutaneous abomasopexy may be performed for RDA only?
 
What is meant when a mechanical obstruction is said to be 'simple'?
 
Why do some people recommend rotating the mesenteric attachments 30* apart when performing end to end anastomosis of intestines?
 
What is your approach of choice for small intestinal surgery?
 
Which of the following is not a medical treatment for dilation of the cecum?
a)instant coffee b)bethanechol c)increased exercise d)increased concentrates in diet e)correction of ketosis and electrolyte disturbances 
What is your surgical approach for cecal volvulus, torsion or dilation that is unresponsive to medical treatment?
 
What is it called if you exteriorize the apex of the cecum and make a small incision to drain fluid distension?
After the first layer of closure you may leave it inside for 10 minutes, then remove and repeat if more fluid has appeared before redoing that stitch and adding your second layer. 
Surgical resection of the cecum is known as?
 
How many layers would you use to close the uterus? Describe the pattern type you would chose?
After C section. 
 
What three things pass through the umbilical opening?
This one is actually pluralized, but they do the same thing. 
This is the only one that goes cranial. 
 
The internal layer of the hernial sac is the ______ _____, the external layer is the ____.
 
 
What do ruminants have that make it far more likely a horse will have small intestines in their umbilical hernia?
Ruminants may also get abomasum involvement in larger hernias. 
The aponeuroses of these two muscles forms the external rectus sheath.
______ and _____ _______ ______ 
This muscle is associated with the internal rectus sheath.
 
Non-reducible hernias may be due to _______ or ______.
 
Abdominal pressure bandages are more likely to work in cows than horses because?
Other nonsurgical treatments include hernia clamping, injections of inglammatory agents into hernial ring (e.g. briodine). 
Umbilical hernias are a defect in the ___ ___
 
This is the large animal species most likely to get congenital umbilical hernias.
 
True or false: simple hernias are typically non-inflammatory?
 
In order to attempt non-surgical correction of a hernia, it must be?
 
Reducible hernias in animals under _ weeks old are generally contraindicative of surgical correction.
 
In order to close skin in a more asthetic manner, without excess tension, use this incision instead of elliptical.
 
_____ techniques (_______) can only be used with reducible hernias.
______ (______) 
What is the main argument against excisive/open techniques in hernia correction?
Usually faster (since all skin does not need to be carefully dissected off internal hernial sac), may have better incision healing, used for any kind of hernia. 
True or false: Imbrication (overlap) is recommended in closure of hernial rings to better withstand tension?
 
True or false: calves should be fasted for 24 hours and water removed 6 hours before surgery for hernia correction?
 
If simple interrupted won't work on a hernial ring due to tension, name a method you might use to reduce that tension?
 
Why would the alternative method of relief incision not be recommended?
Two big cuts as opposed to numerous little ones 
The hole is just too big. No tension reduction will let you close. What now?
 
This is the most common complication of herniacorrection, reduced with abdominal bandages.
 
Which structure is least likely involved in omphalitis?
 
To avoid contamination of your surgical site, you'd clamp or oversew these before correcting omphalitis
Make sure to remove one of them afterwards. you'll know which one. 
How many carmalts would you use when ligating an umbilical artery for removal?
 
If a urachus extends near the bladder, where would you resect the bladder?
 
The most unfavourable prognosis occurs when the umbilical vein enlargement extends to this organ
 
What is the most likely complication of cauterization of a persistent urachus?
 
In this species, patent urachus is more rare, but usually associated with omphalitis or hernia.
 
Horses and swine have a _________ scrotum.
Unlike ruminants 
The scrotal blood supply is contained in this, which is marked externally by this other thing.
 
 
This modified subcutaneous tissue includes fibroelastic tissue and smooth muscle.
 
This is the muscle responsible for adjusting how low the testes hang.
 
This evagination of the parietal peritoneum contains the spermatic cord, epididymis and testicle.
Continuous with peritoneal cavity via inguinal canal 
The spermatic cord contains the following:
This one's kind of off on it's own. 
 
 
 
 
This reflection of the parietal layer of vaginal tunic suspends structures of the spermatic cord like mesentery does intestines.
 
The ______ _____ of the testicle attachest he tail of epididymis to the testicle
 
This attachest he tail of the epididymis to the vaginal tunic
 
Both of the aforementioned ligaments are derived from this structure
 
What is an additional indication for castration in goats?
All animals to remove male characteristics, avoid breeding, permit housing and handling together. 
You should palpate to confirm this condition is not present prior to any routine castration.
Also epididymitis, orchitis, tumours, inguinal hernias but less obvious than this one. 
Ideal ages for castration?
_-_ weeks (calf) 
_-_weeks (lamb) 
_-_ years (horse) 
What am i referring to? (get your mind out of the gutter)
'Grab it close enough to the base that you can't break it off then try to.' 
What is the most common analgesic used in North America for castration?
 
Especially in this animal, be careful of lidocaine toxicity.
 
This is the most common method of general anesthesia for horses.
_____ and _____. Being as how they are horses, they get pain control too. Good for them. 
Why can't you use elastrator bands in horses?
 
Prophylaxis against this is important regardless of species when using elastrator bands.
More important the older the animal is. 
The emasculat___ crushes only. The emasculat__ crushes and cuts in surgical castration.
Best used during fly season, as does not leave open wound. 
 
You may do ______ incision on any kind of scrotum, but _____ incision is only for pendulous ones.
Ventral for horses, lateral or caudal for everybody else. 
 
With regards to vaginal tunic, this method minimizes hydrocele and infection post-op, but there is less effective hemostasis.
Less popular with horses and older food animals. 
In this animal you must remove the tunic afterwards with open technique.
To avoid hydrocele and post-op infection. 
You'd normally do this to the spermatic cord in small animals, but it increases risk of infection in large.
Less aseptic technique you know. 
In younger animals, this is the main way of dealing with the spermatic cord.
 
This species is always given the emasculator or ligation, never traction or torsion.
Because they're princesses. 
How long should you monitor for signs of hemorrhage after castration?
 
Exercise in clean environments may prevent this most common complication of castration.
 
You can prevent this by removing the spermatic cord as proximally as possible, and removing vaginal tunic.
 

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