Science Quiz / Veterinary Dermatology

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Can you name the Dermatology

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This is a cluster of corneocytes which retain cohesion and detach as such from the stratum corneum.
a)papule b)pustule c)crust d)epidermal collarette e)scale 
This is an adherence of dried exudate, serum, pus or blood o the skin surface.
a)papule b)pustule c)crust d)epidermal collarette e)scale 
This is a circular formation of peeling keratin, aka a scaly ring.
a)papule b)pustule c)crust d)epidermal collarette e)scale 
This is a small solid elevation of skin less than 1 cm in diameter. If it gets larger it becomes a plaque.
a)papule b)pustule c)crust d)epidermal collarette e)scale 
This is a small circumscribed elevation of epidermis filled with pus.
a)papule b)pustule c)crust d)epidermal collarette e)scale 
Name the four goals of a skin biopsy?
 
 
 
 
Which area of distribution is least likely for canine atopic dermatitis?
a)face b)ear pinnae c)back d)front feet e)all of the above are likely 
True or false: Canine adverse food reactions (CAFR) may be any time of hypersensitivity reaction?
 
Which of the following regions is least likely to show lesions of Flea Allergy Dermatitis in dogs?
a)dorso-lumbar area b)base of tail c)medial and caudal thighs d)face e)all of the above are the likely places 
True or false: FAD only occurs via the Type I or Type IV hypersensitivity pathways?
Always through flea bite, salivary allergen. 
What is the most likely route of exposure to environmental allergen in canine atopic dermatitis?
 
The older paradigm for CAD, the inside-out theory implied an _________ defect. The outside-in theory recognizes a defect in _____ _____ function.
 
 
Which of the following regions is least likely to be affected with CAFR?
a)ventral neck b)ear pinnae c)face d)feet e)perianal area 
Which of the following is a predisposing factor to develop scabies?
a)youth b)poor hygeine c)wildlife exposure d)immunosuppression e)all of the above 
What is the typical lesion of scabies?
Tends to appear on the hock, elbow or margins of the pinnae. 
True or false: CAD may be either type I or type IV hypersensitivity?
 
Name a diagnosis method for scabies?
 
True or false: cheletielliosis tends to target younger animals, poor hygeine animals or immunosuppressed animals, but is not zoonotic.
 
How many of Favrot's 8 criteria should be met before you diagnose CAD?
 
Which of the following is NOT one of Favrot's criteria for CAD diagnosis?
a)onset under 1 year old b)mostly indoor living dog c)pruritus responsive to glucocorticoids d)alesional pruritus at onset e)front feet affected 
Which of the following breeds has not been found to be predisposed to CAD based on studies?
a)boxer b)French Bulldog c)Poodle d)west highland white e)pug 
True or false: sarcoptes scabei may cause a rash on the forearms and abdomen of owners?
 
What is the typical lesion of cheletielliosis? (name, location)
Diagnosed by parasiticidal therapeutic trial, acetate tape preparation or superficial skin scraping 
Why is non-affected ear margins one of Favrot's CAD diagnosis criteria? (i.e. what would that indicate if they were affected)
 
Why is non-affected dorso-lumbar area one of Favrot's criteria for CAD diagnosis? (i.e. what disease would this area indicate)
 
True or false: 20% of positive diagnoses of CAD made by Favrot's criteria are misdiagnoses?
 
True or false: CAD has high heritability?
 
Deficiency in these stratum corneum lipids is implicated in CAD.
 
This feline skin lesion involves numerous small crusts, papules and erosions.
Generally located in the dorso-lumbar area, and pre-aural region, but may be generalized. 
This feline skin lesion involves equal loss of hair on both sides of the body.
Often localized to dorso lumbar area nd ventral abdomen, may affect limbs and flanks, the head and neck tend not to be affected at all. It is non-inflammatory, no other lesions are apparent. 
This feline skin lesion may present as a painless/non-pruritic indolent ulcer usually on the midline of the upper lip. Usually unilateral.
It may also present as papules, plaques, nodules or edema, with variable pruritus and pain. In all cases you'll see eosinophilic cell infiltrate in the dermis. 
This histological term describes a mixture of degenerated collagen fibres and degranulated eosinophils often seen with eosinophilic dermatoses.
 
Which of the following is NOT a DDx for miliary dermatitis in a cat?
a)flea allergy dermatitis b)dermatophytosis c)adverse drug reaction d)ectoparasitic infestation e)all of the above are legit 
Which is the LEAST LIKELY cause of symmetrical alopecia?
a)dermatophytosis b)psychogenic c)endocrinopathy d)CAFR e)paraneoplasia 
Which is the most likely cause of eosinophilic dermatoses?
a)ectoparasitic infestation b)neoplasia c)viral dermatosis d)idiopathic e)allergy 
Viral dermatosis is one of the more likely causes of this feline skin lesion pattern, which is quite pruritic and striking in appearance.
Crusts, erosions and ulcers form on the head and neck. 
Where is the most frequent localization for Spontaneously Occurring Large Crust patterns in cats?
 
What are the top two DDX for SOLC?
Name one get both. 
Which of the following environmental allergens is least likely to affect a dog in November?
a)mites b)epidermals c)tree pollens d)moulds 
Name a viral etiology of exudative crusting dermatosis of the head and neck in cats?
 
Year round pruritus would apply to all of the options listed except?
a)scabies, cheletiellosis b)otoacariosis c)cutaneous adverse food reaction d)atopic dermatitis of house dust and storage mites, epidermals or moulds e)atopic dermatitis due to pollens 
Warm weather seasonal pruritus would likely be caused by all except?
a)pollens b)atopic-like dermatitis c)FAD d)scabies e)mosquito bite hypersensitivity 
Year round pruritus that worsens in warm weather implies any of the following causes except?
a)pollen caused atopic dermatitis b)CAFR c)flea allergy dermatitis d)atopic like dermatitis e)all of the above plus ectoparasitic infestation, house dust and storage mites, epidermals and moulds. 
Pediculosis is an example of a ______ sesaonal ectoparasitic infesation.
 
How do you rule out demodicosis?
 
True or false: one or more dietary restriction-provocatin trials should be performed in all patients with year round pruritus?
 
This type of environmental allergy test is easy to perform, involving a simple blood draw, best for non-referral practice.
This is an in vitro test, which involves extrapolation. The presence of IgE does not correlate with severity of disease. It takes 2-3 weeks and has no positive or negative controls. Higher false positives. 
This type of environmental allergy test is gold standard, has quick results, involves positive and negative controls, and is more accurate.
It does involve sedation, clipping, a need for healthy lateral thoracic skin, requires a skilled operator, and is expensive for the veterinarian to keep supplies for. 
True or false: it is important during the restriction step to phase out the old food slowly?
 
True or false: medications with flavour and toothpastes are prohibited along with treats and rawhides during food trials?
 
How long to food trials last in weeks?
 
What do you feed during the provocation stage?
If it contains the offending allergen, pruritus returns in 2 weeks 
What is the optional third stage of dietary restriction-provocation trials, and what is the purpose?
 
 
Which of the following is not a differential diagnosis for folliculitis?
a)bacterial skin infection b)superficial pyoderma c)sarcoptes scabei d)demodicosis e)dermatophytosis 
True or false: Malassezia dermatitis is overdiagnosed in practice, dermatophytosis is underdiagnosed?
 
What is the true cause of most misdiagnosed canine cases of 'dermatophytosis'?
 
What is your go to diagnostic method for diagnosing Malassezia dermatitis and pyoderma?
Two types: direct impression smear and acetate tape preparations... 
What is the gold standard for dermatophytosis diagnosis?
 
True or false: dermatophytosis is less common in dogs than in cats?
 
If pyoderma extends into the dermis and/or subcutis, it is no longer folliculitis, but ______
 
What is the causative organism of canine pyoderma in the vast majority of cases?
 
Name a predisposing factor for clinical pyoderma?
 
Skin cytology which reveals rod-shaped bacteria is a good indication for this...
 
What is an example of glabrous skin?
 
Aside from the predisposing factors to bacterial pyoderma, what other factor increases predisposition to dermatophytosis?
So, in addition to cutaneous damage, inflammatory skin disease, allergy, endocrinopathy, neoplasia, immunosuppressive drugs... 
Which of the following dog and cat breeds is least likely to suffer from dermatophytosis? (less predisposition)
a)Jack russell terrier b) pug c)persian d)yorkshire  
This ailment presents with erythema, alopecia, lichenification, pruritus and odour, and a moist exudate.
May occur in lip, vulvar, facial, tail, neck, leg folds, interdigital areas. May be a mixed infection with M. pachydermatis. 
Greenish discolouration in a case of lip fold dermatitis indicates this is the causative organism
 
True or false: the primary method of identifying dermatophytosis is the classical lesion (singular circular alopecia and crusting area)
 
Superficial pustular dermatophytosis is a close mimic of this autoimmune disease.
 
Nodular dermatophytosis (kerions) are usually seen singly, in dogs. Where do you normally see dermatophytic pseudomycetoma?
 
What is the term for chronic nail fragility and deformity due to dermatophytosis?
 
What is the only species of dermatophyte that is identified under Wood's lamp?
 
How many weeks must you wait before discarding a fungal culture with suspected dermatophytes?
You're looking for it to turn red due to protein consumption produing alkaline conditions. Saprophytes use carbohydrates first and produce red colouring later. 
Name the three topical therapies you might apply twice weekly to treat dermatophytosis?
 
 
 
True or false: terbinafine and itraconazole are the go to systemic antifungals for dermatophytosis?
 
What is the term for treatment that continues until fungal culture monitoring shows no organisms present?
Rather than just cessation of symptoms? 
True or false: Malassezia species are part of the normal skin microflora?
 
Name a topical antifungal agent to treat malassezia dermatitis?
 
What additional oral therapeutic agent might be employed against malassezia, in addition to terbinafine and itraconazole?
 
Name a diagnostic method for demodicosis?
 
Which of the following would not likely predispose to demodicosis in an adult dog?
a)glucocorticosteroids or azathioprine b)chemotherapy c)endoparasiticism d)Cushing's e)hypothyroidism 
Which of the following is not a clinical sign of demodicosis?
a)alopecia, scaling b)follicular casts c)papules and comedones d)lichenification e)none of the above 
What organism would you associate with dark brown nailbed discharge, severe pruritus and greasy brownish macules?
All that in dogs, plus more. In cats you may see greasy adherent brown scales. 
This species of demodex generally does not cause pruritus initially
 
What is the term for concurrent bilateral ceruminous otitis externa caused by demodex canis?
 
What ist he term for interdigital edema caused by demodex?
 
True or false:current recommendations are that any og with demodicosis be eliminated from the breeding pool?
 
True or false: in a mild case of demodex, the first treatment is to do nothing and observe for at least a month?
 
True or false: if the owner insists on treating demodicosis immediately, you should recommend glucocorticosteroid topicals, not miticidal therapy?
 
What are collies deficient in that allows ivermectin toxicity?
These signs can occur in any dog gettng off label macrocyclic lactones for demodicosis too... Mydriasis, ptyalism, lethargy, ataxia, muscle tremors, edematous wheals. 
Topical amitraz may be toxic to mamals through __-adrenergic activity.
watch for bradycardia, lethargy, sedation, hypothermia, hyperglycemia, ataxia, polyphagia, polydipsia, vomiting, diarrhea 
True or false: after the second negative monthly set of 3-5 skin scrapings, you may cease treatment for demodex?
 
True or false: demodicosis has a good prognosis?
 

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