Science Quiz / Dehorning and urolithiasis plus noninfectious GIT

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Can you name the Dehorning and urolithiasis plus noninfectious GIT

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True or false: the entire epidermis covering the cornual process produces horn and must be removed to prevent growth?
 
The cornual diverticulum extends less into the horn of this species, but the frontal sinus opening is larger.
 
The cornual nerve is a branch of the ________ nerve, which branches off the trigeminal.
C1 and C2 branches may also innervate caudal horn region. 
The cornual arteries and veins branch off the respective ____ artery and vein.
 
What's a complication of fracture of the cornual process? You can prevent both by dehorning.
 
If you wish to use chemical cauterization you should perform it before _ week(s) old.
Normal age is 2-3 weeks, along with castration (I'm talking calves here.) 
True or false: you can use a Robert's dehorning trephine on older calves after the horn is 2-3 cm long?
 
Aside from a Keystone dehorner or dehorning saw, what else might you use on adult cattle or yearlings?
 
If I inject at half the distance between lateral canthus and base of horn, beneath frontal crest, this is?
With local anesthetic, to clarify. 
In what situations would I use local infiltration around the entire base of the horn without a specific regional block?
 
 
What is the most commonly used NSAID for dehorning?
 
What is Dr. Trout's most recommended method for cows 3-4 weeks old?
Contact time under 5 seconds 
What chemicals might you use to cauterize the horn?
 
Which of the following is not a potential can of worms you open with chemical cauterization of horn?
a)running into the eye b)too little damage or too much in area c)erosions on the mother's udder or flank d)oral ulcers in pen mates e)all of the above are good reasons not to do this thing 
How much skin should you include around the horn bud when using a robert's dehorning trephine/tube dehorner?
This is actually true with most instruments. 
This method is best for horns over 4cm in diameter. It gouges them out.
This is amputation. Hemostasis is more important now. 
Where are the branches of the cornual artery on cows?
_ and _. In increasing numerical order of 'o clocks' 
What is the name for horn regeneration?
 
What is the common name for keystone dehorners?
Best used for feedlots, cosmetic appearance not important. 
Why are keystone dehorners not RECOMMENDED for use in adults, though they are viable?
Avoid use in over 2 yo. 
What is the recommended method for cattle over 3 years old?
Start with a scalpel incision around the base as a guide then use.... 
What if they're over 3, but it's a small group and appearance is importance?
Slow and the most work. minimal hemorrhage due to heat generated. 
How long should you monitor for bleeding after dehorning?
 
What might you want to do while dehorning a male goat?
 
At what age should you disbud a goat?
 
What is the toxic dose of lidocaine in goats?
__mg per kg 
What are two complications of the disbudding iron in kids, due to their superficial cranial cavity?
 
 
What is the most common site of calculus obstruction in sheep and goats?
The distal signmoid flexure is a close second. 
A farmer asks you to come tomorrow for a urethral obstruction. When you arrive, this bull looks like it has an udder. Wha happun?
 
If you need to perform urehtral or bladder surgery on a cow, how would you give anesthesia/analgesia?
 
How about for sheep or goats?
 
What's the first procedure you'd peform on a sheep or goat? If that didn't re-establish flow what's up?
 
 
What is the procedure called when you make a new urethra under their butt?
 
What is the only time you'd opt for urethrotomy over the procedure in the previous question?
Goal= to preserve penis function after removing calculi. Also want to re-establish urine flow, but you could do that the other way. 
Sheep and goats are especially prone to these sequelae after urethrotomy?
 
What is the method of urethrostomy where you split the penis open and suture it to the walls of your incision called?
 
What's the disadvantage of a low surgical approach for urethrotomy or urethrostomy?
This method leads to less skin irritation due to urination. 
What's the main indication for a high urethrotomy or urethrostomy?
Also more comfy for surgeon 
Which method is best for catheterizing the urinary bladder of a blocked ruminant?
 
Why is retrograde catheterization usually impossible?
 
What kind of penis do ruminants have, scientifically speaking?
People and horses have musculovascular. 
Give the goals of treatment in order of priority with ruminant urinary calculi?
 
 
 
True or false: uncomplicated removal of the urethral process is detrimental to reproductive performance of breeding rams?
 
When you amputate the penis for urethrostomy, make sure you do it _____ to the obstruction.
 
What part of the penile stump usually hemorrhages?
 
This is the general ter for a group of diseases characterized by reticulo-ruminal dysfunction.
 
The bottom layer in a normal rumen is?
 
The optium pH for celluolytic flora in the rumen is between?
# and # 
Transforation to pure lactate ferentation will occur under this pH?
 
When feeding green fodder, rumen pH is between _ and _. On grain feeds, between _._ and _._
 
 
Which of the following would likely not be associated with rumen alkalosis?
a)simple indigestion b)overfeeding grain c)urea indigestion d)putrefaction of contents e)GI stasis, plyloric outflow problems 
Sluggish motility and low numbers of rumen flora would be described with this on the activity scale.
 
This test is for digestion of protein?
 
This test is for digestion of carbohydrates
 
Methylene blue reduction test is for?
 
If no sedientation or floatation occurs in 4-8 minutes on a sedimentation activity test, what does this mean?
 
If sedientation occurs rapidly within 3 inutes, what does this indicate?
 
This disease is mild and self-limiting, cow will present as off feed.
pH of rumen may be normal, slightly acidic or slightly alkaline. Methylne blue reduction time is normal. Can be due to sudden feed changes, microflora adapting, indigestible or daaged feed, excess carbs, lack of water, prolonged antibiotic therapy. 
With acute rumen acidosis, what accumulates in excess in the rumen?
 
Which cattle breed is not particularly prone to grain overload?
a)Zebus b)Jersey c)Hereford d)angus 
Which of the following is not a differential for simple indigestion?
a) lactic acidosis b)septicemia c)abomasal displacement d)hardware disease e)ketosis f)vagal indigestion g)liver abscessation h)all of the above are differentials 
Rumen overload, grain overload, overeating syndrome, acute indigestion and grain engorgement are all other names for?
 
True or false: grey-green watery diarrhea, low milk fat syndrome and decreased rumen motility indicate severe grain overload?
 
Name a sequela of severe grain overload?
 
What would not form a part of your treatment for mild grain overload?
a)lots of water b)oral antacids c)roughate to increase saliva d)with hold grain 
If introducing a high carb diet, you should do it in _ steps, with each one taking _-_ days.
 
 
Abnormal distension of rumen caused by excessive retention of microbial ferentation gases is?
 
Name a cause of frothy bloat?
 
White and red clovers are interediate risk for pasture bloat. What is the highest risk?
 
What is the character of the foam which causes frothy bloat?
Prevents eructation 
True to false: rumen tympany or bloat is not very related to genetics, and essentially dependent on diet alone?
 
True or false: mid day is a high risk time for bloat?
 
Congestion of tissues anterior to thoracic inlet on necropsy indicates?
 
True or false: passing a stomach tube will fix frothy bloat?
 
Name a product you might drench the rumen with to decrease foam?
 
In emergency cases, where would you trocharize a bloat?
 
Which of the following would you not do to prevent feedlot bloat?
a)ionophores in ration b)polaxalene in ration c)mineral oil in diet d)feed 10-15% roughage e)give only finely ground feeds 
A bloat due to physical or functional defect in eructation is referred to as a ____ ___ bloat.
May actually be caused by cows facing downhill. Wut. 
The more common name for traumatic reticuloperitonitis (TRP)?
 
What are two tests for TRP performed old school?
i.e. no fancy biochemical analysis. just you, and a cow. and maybe another implement for one of them. 
 
What kind of cows are more likely to get TRP?
 
TRP symptoms are described as anorexia without abdominal _____ and with _____ abdominal pain
Alongside reluctance to move, anorexia, decreased fecal output and milk yield. 
 
Name a complication of TRP?
 
What is the gold standard for lab data for TRP?
 
What simple machine may be used in the treatment of TRP, if systemic animicrobials alone aren't enough fun?
Hint: not a gear. 
If your patient has TRP, you may also want to feed them one of these.
 
What is not an indicaiton for surgery on TRP?
a)no response to medical therapy within 24 hours b)heavily pregnant c)very valuable, acute signs d)reticular abscess suspected e)all of the above are indications 
Chronic localized peritonitis can be a sequel to?
 
Therapy for this fatal condition is generally useless (can try IV fluids, antimicrobials and peritoneal lavage). It can be a sequelus to the following:
traumatic reticuloperitonitis, abomasul ulceration or perforation, metritis, ruptured uterus, rumenitis, rumen perforation, rectal perforation, ruptured abdominal abscess. 
This is a clinical syndrome of motor disturbances of forestomachs and abomasum, hinering normal passage of ingesta.
Can happen by direct damage or pressure on ventral vagus nerve, lesions on medial wall of reticulum, indigestion of late gestation, failure of eructation, anterior (reticulo-omasal) stenosis, posterior (pyloric) stenosis,  
The most common cause of vagal indigestion is lesions involving this?
 
A positive test of this type indicates increased vagal tone, 16% increase above base after admin=+ive.
not definitive for vagal indigestion, but shows increased tone. 
true or false: vagal indigestion has a good prognosis
 
If this layer is not penetrated, it's not an ulcer, it's an erosion.
 
What group of animals is most likely to have abomasal ulcers at necropsy or slaughter?
 
True or false: stress, foreign bodies, hypocalcemia and confinement may all predispose to abomasal ulcers?
 
What is the most likely cause of mucosal hypoxia leading to ulceration in calves?
 
An abomasal ulcer that is non perforating but has caused massive blood loss is type?
 
A perforating ulcer causing localized peritonitis is type __?
 
True or false: mortality rate can be high without perforation?
 
What is the cause of death with type IV abomasal ulceration?
 
With heart rates over ___ bpm or PCV under __%, blood transfusion is necessary in ulcer treatment.
 
 

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