Science Quiz / Clinical Pharm, Midterm 2 part 4

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Can you name the Clinical Pharm, Midterm 2 part 4

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What does MDI drug delivery stand for?
 
What are the three most common conditions treated with respiratory pharmacological agents?
In all three cases therapy is aimed at inflammatory mediators and hyperreactive bronchiolar smooth muscle, wiht the goal of maintaining near normal pulmonary function, prevent recurrent exacerbations of dyspnea, and minimizing side effects. 
 
 
What two classes of drugs are the mainstays of respiratory therapy?
 
Stimulation of __ receptors causes smooth muscle relaxation and bronchodilation.
 
Which of the following is NOT a bronchodilator?
a)beta2 agonists b)beta 2 antagonists c)anticholinergics d)methylzanthines  
What do we seek to prevent by using short-acting beta adrenergic agonists?
 
What is the shared utility (and limited use) of epinephrine and isoproteronol?
 
True or false: beta adrenergic agonists not only relax smooth muscle of airways but also inhibit inflammatory mediator release from mast cells?
 
What undesirable side effects are avoided by using selective beta2 adrenergic agonists?
 
True or false: Terbutaline is well absorbed orally?
 
Which of the following is not correct regarding terbutaline?
a)It is a common treatment for lower airway disease in horses b)it is a common treatment for feline asthma c)it has a short half life d)it is affected by high first pass effect e)it may cause cardiac effects in some patients despite being highly selective for beta 2 f)chronic use causes desensitization of effects 
Which of the following is not correct regarding clenbuterol?
a)it is used only in horses, for allergic airway disease b)it is a specific beta 2 agonist c)it may induce abortion d)it may be of use in food animals  
This less specific Beta2 agonist is an inhalant delivered by mask, to alleviate bronchospasm and cough.
Inadvisable for cardiac patients. 
Anticholinergics used for airway disease tend to competitively block __ muscarinic receptors in respiratory smooth muscle.
 
This anticholinergic is chemically related to atropine, delivered by inhaler, and has a slow onset.
It is seldom used in veterinary patients, may cause glaucoma with chronic use, but does not inhibit mucociliary clearance unlike most anticholinergics. 
Theophylline and aminophylline (which dissociates to release it) are both bronchodilators of this class?
 
What is the most potent airway smooth muscle relaxant?
Best for long term bronchodilatory therapy in companion animals, must monitor serum levels. Tolerance does not develop, but there is a narrow therapeutic index, and gastric upset is common. Watch for seizures in horses, and arrhythmias in everyone. 
Is furosemide established as an effective agent to inhibit bronchoconstriction?
 
This anti-inflammatory, given with bronchodilators, should be avoided if infection is present.
It works by reducing antigen processing, T cell responses to antigens, and tissue responses to histamine. It also inhibits phospholipase A2 and reduces vascular permeability. 
True or false: oral prednisolone is still one of the most effective options in managing some cases of feline airway disease?
 
What ist he number one corticosteroid for equine airway disease?
 
This oral corticosteroid has the shortest half-life, for greater safety, compared to drugs like dexamethasone.
 
NSAIDs are of limited utility in treating allergic airway disease, because they do not inhibit __ production?
 
Which of the following interleukins attracts eosinophils and neutrophils?
a)IL-5 b)IL-9 c)IL-13 d)all of the above 
True or false: Zafirlukast, an inhibitor of luekotriene release or action, is useful only in conjunction with Beta 2 agonists at the moment?
 
Sodium chromoglycate and nedocromil both act as ____ cell stabilizers, and can prevent development of but not correct allergic airway disease.
 
Finish this rule of thumb: never inhibit a ______ cough
 
In which of the three relevant species would you not use an antitussive?
 
What, nonsensically, is codeine often combined with in human cough syrups?
 
What side effects shoudl you watch for in cats and especially in horses with codeine (dont' use in horses)
 
This opioid is 20x more potent than codeine or dextromethorphan, and is an injectible used in clinic only.
 
This opioid is similar in potency to butorphanol, but can be given orally. It excites cats, so it is mainly used in dogs.
 
This opioid is noted for being 'non-narcotic.'
No analgesia, drowsiness, constipation. Still can cause euphoria in high doses though! May be used to treat stereotypic behaviours too. 
______ facilitate removal of respiratory secretions by reducing viscosity, _____ accomplish the same thing by increasing rate of secretion.
Both are weak in effect, and use is declining. 
 
Which of the following is a potentially more useful way to aid in mucus removal?
a)bronchodilators b)drugs improving ciliary activity c)increasing hydration or ionic strength of secretions (water/saline) d)rupturing sulphur linkages in mucus e)all of the above 
This mucolytic reduces S-S mucoprotein cross linking to decrease viscosity.
It is more likely of use to treat acetaminophen overdose, these days. 
This mucolytic is approved in horses, may improve mucociliary action, and is administered as a powder in grain feed.
 
This mucolytic is also an expectorant, approved for horses, but is contraindicated with history of gastric ulcers.
 
Which of the following is ineffective as a mucolytic?
a)IV fluid b)aerosolized saline c)oral saline d)none of the above 
This drug was given in class as an example of an expectorant that probably doesn't actually work.
 
Which histamine receptor causes smooth muscle constriction? (most relevant in airway disease)
 
Which histamine receptor increases HR and gastric acid secretion?
 
What do H3 and H4 receptors mediate?
 
Name a contraindication for H1 receptor blockers?
 
Which of the following would not be an indication for decongestant (like H1 blocker) use?
a) allergic reaction b)asthmatic bronchoconstriction c)allergic rhinitis d)urticaria 
Sympathomimetics like ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and phenylephrine act as __-agonists to reduce mucosal blood flow?
Watch for rebound congestion with topical formulations! Watch for CVS and CNS adverse effects if systemic! 
Which of the following is true regarding metered dose inhaler drug delivery as a method?
a)associated with increased local drug concentration b)increased efficacy c)increased safety d)more rapid response e)all of the above 
Aerosols with a diameter of _-_ micrometers produce the best results.
 
Which of the following is not a short acting beta2 adrenergic agonist delivered by inhalation?
a)salbutamol b)salmeterol c)pirbuterol d)fenoterol e)none of the above 
What is the name of the mask used to deliver MDI therapy to dogs?
 
What class of AMDs distributes to lung macrophages 100s of times more than plasma levels?
 

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