Science Quiz / Cardiovascular SA (midterm 3)

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Can you name the Cardiovascular SA (midterm 3)

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In the absence of obstruction, lymphatics can increase __-__ times in their flow rate to remove excess interstitial fluid?
 
What type of Natriuretic Peptide is most useful for diagnosing CHF?
 
This is the sudden and transient loss of consciousness due to temporary loss of cerebral perfusion (10 seconds is all it takes)
 
Which of the following is not part of the 'compensatory' response for heart failure (which actually is a vicious cycle, as it is designed to function for hours in shock situations,
a)activation of RAAS b)increase in venomotor tone to increase preload c)decreased HR d)increased contractility e)increase in arterial vasomotor tone 
Increases in preload with heart failure tend to promote what?
 
Increases in Heart rate, contractility, arterial vasomotor tone would all tend to increase this value, reflective of the heart's own needs?
 
Dogs and cats are class __ in regards to their purkinje fibre layout?
 
On the ECG, this structure represents the depolarization of the atrial myocardium?
 
On the ECG, this structure represents a time of electrical quiesence while the wave of depolarization passes through the AV node, bundle of His, etc.
 
The QRS wave on ECG represents the depolarization of?
 
What structure on ECG represents repolarization of ventricular myocardium?
 
This is the term for when the heart is failing to meet metabolic demands of tissues, with high left ventricular pressure at end diastole and pulmonary edema?
 
What is the term for a 24 hour ECG which attempts to identify intermittent arrhythmias?
 
This refers to the difficulty breathing when lying down which may be one respiratory presentation of heart failure, and which may cause restlessness at night?
 
A positive (distension) on this test indicates moderate increase in right heart pressure. Severe is indicated by distension at rest.
 
Name a possible cause of muffled or absent heart sounds on auscultation?
 
This normal heart sound is usually heard best over the left apex and is associated with closure of AV valves.
Corresponds with QRS. 
This normal heart sound is usually heard best over the left base and is associated with the closure of the semilunar valves.
Corresponds with T wave. 
A murmur at the sternal border on the right side usually indicates this is the origin?
 
A murmur at the left chest base usually indicates a problem in one of these valves?
Usually some type of stenosis in systolic murmurs, or reflux in diastolic. 
A murmur at the left chest apex usually indicates a problem with this valve.
Usually regurgitation in systolic, stenosis in diastolic. 
A murmur at mid heart on the right side usually indicates a problem with this valve?
Usually reflux or subaortic stenosis in systole, Stenosis of the valve in diastole. 
The sudden termination of longitudinal expansion of the ventricle wall during early diastole filling due to reduced compliance produces this sound?
 
This noise cannot occur in atrial fibrillation, as it requires contraction of atria attempting to force blood into already over-distended ventricles?
 
Clicks, abnormal sounds of very high frequency, are typically indicative of this sort of problem?
 
Pulmonary veinous engorgement is evidenced by pulmonary veins to cranial lobes being over 75% of the width of the proximal third of this rib?
Alternatively it may be larger than the accompanying artery, when they should be the same size. 
On a lateral view, the heart should be less than __ intercostal sapces wide and about this percentage of the distance from the apex to carina in height.
IN dogs. 
 
Cat hearts should be _-_._ intercostals wide in lateral views?
 
If you measure width and breadth of heart and translate it to a length in vertebral bodies (T4-T13), this gives yoU?
 
'donuts' and 'railroad tracks' caused by silhouetting of air in tertiary bronchioles against fluids outside or inside the tube is referred to as what on radiography?
 
If you can only see the air-filled bronchials over a fluid or soft tissue opacity, this is what on radiography?
 
Pulmonary osteomas, neoplasia, fungal infiltrates and areas of abscessation may all have this radiographic sign?
 
When therapeutically modifying the vascular volume, we walk a balance of _____ CO enough to ease pulmonary congestion, and keeping it ____ enough to allow for renal, GI and skeleta
 
 
This side effect of furosemide, a strong diuretic, is common in cats, but tends to mostly occur in anorexic dogs?
 
This drug is classed as a diuretic, but is actually very weak in that respect. When added to furosemide, it's main benefit is acting as an antagonist to aldosterone.
 
Aside from hypokalemia, you should watch this when treating with diuretics.
 
The goal of pure _______ therapy is to reduce preload by traping blood in venous circulation, reducing pulmonary edema and MVO2?
 
Amlodipine, hydralazine, and acepromazine are all ______ _____ which reduce afterload by reducing arterial vasomotor tone, increasing SV and reducing MVO2, and also reducing preloa
 
Which of the following is NOT a mixed dilator drug?
a)prazosin b)enalapril c)benazepril d)ramipril e)all of the above are 
This is the only positive inotrope which may not increase MVO2 or risk of arrhythmia?
It works by enhancing the sensitivity of contractile proteins to calcium? 
Which of the following drug classes would be indicated, not contraindicated, by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?
a)beta adrenergic blockers b)phosphodiesterase inhibitors c)alpha receptor blockers d)ACE inhibitors 
Which drug would not form a part of your outpatient treatment plan for an ambulatory CHF patient that is still eating?
a)furosemide b)pimobendan c)ACE inhibitor d)IV morphine e)weekly BUN/creatinine checks 
You are treating a patient for pulmonary edema, and it is progressing despite your efforts. Urea and creatinine are increasing. What is your plan?
a)increase diuretics b)give a strong positive inotrope c)give a strong arterial vasodilator d)reduce diuretics e)A, B and C f)B and C g)C and D 
Read the description and give the term that describes these changes. What condition is this associated with?
Thickening and contraction of valve leaflets, early lengthening followed by shortening of chordae tendinae, increase in spongiosa layer of valve, accumulation of glycosaminoglycans, disruption and fragmentation of collagen fibrils, no inflammation. 
 
Which of the following results is least likely with CVMI?
a)left atrial enlargement b)left ventricular enlargement c)right atrial enlargement d)right ventricular enlargement e)coughing due to left bronchial compression 
Where would you expect the PMI of a systolic heart murmur due to CMVI to be?
 
What wouldn't form a part of your treatment plan for CMVI with CHF?
a)beta blockers b)rigorous exercise to strengthen the valves c)furosemide d)pimobendan e)spironolactone 
Cardiomyopathy presenting with eccentric hypertrophy is known as?
A form of dystolic dysfunction, due to decreased contractility. 
What ending of a drug name indicates to you that it is an ACE inhibitor?
 
If treating a cat for HCM, you would give ___ ___ to reduce HR and improve myocardial perfusion, ___ _______ to inhibit RAAS.
 
 
A Cocker Spaniel patient presents with the following signs. What is the likely diagnosis?
On radiography, pulmonary veinous congestion, left ventricular enlargement, left atrial enlargement, pleural effusion. On ECG, supraventricular premature beats, left ventricular and left atrial enlargement. Signs of elevated NT-proBNP on blood work. Deficiency in Taurine also evident. 
A cat presents with signs of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, along with polyphagia, weight loss, PU/PD, hyperactivity and muscle tremors. What is the underlying cause?
The cat is over 6 years old. One stopgap treatment might be methimazole. 
This breed of dog is associated with a cardiomyopathy with the following features.
Ventricular arrhythmias, LV systolic dysfunction and CHF very rare in this form of CM, may be carnitine deficient. 
What complication of DCM is more likely in cats?
Requires opioids for pain, supportive care, thrombolytics like streptokinase, and treatment of any concurrent CHF and/or malignant arrhythmias. 
You have found a heart murmur or gallop incidentally on a feline patient. Other info is as follows. What is the likely diagnosis?
The gallop appears to be S4. On radiography you can see that the heart is enlarged. You see evidence of left ventricular enlargement on the ECG, and evidence of concentric hypertrophy on the left ventricle on echocardiography. 
If you catch dilated cardiomyopathy before it progresses to CHF, what class of drug will delay CHF?
 
Which carries a worse prognosis: Dilated or Hypertrophic CM in a cat with hyperthyroidism?
 
Which of the following neoplasia is least likely to be associaed with hemopericardium?
a)hemangiosarcoma b)melanoma c)heart base tumour d)lymphosarcoma e)mesothelioma 
True or false: pericardial effusion produces a diastolic dysfunction?
 
What are the triad of clinical signs of pericardial effusion?
 
 
 
What is the best treatment for idiopathic pericardial effusion?
 
What is the best treatment for cardiac tamponade?
 
This is typically a diagnosis of exclusion after cor pulmonale, heartworm, congenital causes, valvular problems, myocardial issues and pericardial effusion are ruled out.
Good prognosis with pericardectomy 
A new heart murmur of mitral valve insufficiency, exuberant arterial pulses, joint pain and swelling and positive blood culture would all go a long way to supporting this diagnosis
 
How many months after injection of L3s can adult parasites begin producing microfilaria?
 
How many weeks must microfilaria be inside a mosquito to mature to L3s?
 
Cor pulmonale due to heartworm infection will present with this type of hypertrophy?
 
Empiric therapy for vegetative endocarditis would include ______ or _______ combined with fluoroquinolones or aminoglycosides
Still poor prognosis, which is grave if heart failure is present 
This is the adulticide therapy of choice for dirofilaria immitis, which must be given with caution with heavy burdens.
 
What is not characteristic of cats with regards to D. immitis infections in relation to dogs?
a)cats are less susceptible to infection b)melarsomine is equally recommended c)they may receive monthly prophylaxis in endemic areas as dogs would d)more severe clinical signs are likely e)surgical removal and corticosteroids are possible treatments. 
This congenital disorder invovles a left to right shunt, presenting between 6-12 weeks old, most commonly in females.
Other than A-V fistulas, this is one of the only causes of continuous heart murmurs. Stronger intensity in systole. May feel prominent pule in unusual areas. May see left ventricular bulge on radiology, signs of pulmonary overcirculation 
This is the correct therapy for PDA?
 
This most common of canine congenital heart defects involves left ventricular concentric hypertrophy and a greater chance of dysrhythmias.
May present with weak femoral pulse, heart failure signs are rare, PMI of systolic murmur tends to be right over left base, definitive diagnosis by doppler echocardiography or cardiac catheterization? 
A young animal (6-12 weeks old) presenting with a heart murmur, cyanosis of the rear half of the body and polycythemia is likely what?
A rare presentation of a common canine congenital heart defect. May develop secondaryt o hypoplastic pulmonary artery or hypertension of pulmonary circulation.  
These drugs are good for treating dysrhythmias due to aortic stenosis?
 
If a dog survives beyond this age without dying suddenly due to aortic stenosis, then they will likely live a full life.
 
This treatment for polycythemia is the only therapy available for reverse PDA.
 
True or false: a ventricular septal defect tends to cause eccentric hypertrophy of both ventricles?
 
Which of the following is not part of the tetralogy of Fallot?
a)pulmonic stenosis b)overriding aorta c)ventricular septal defect d)hypertrohic right ventricle e)hypertrophic left ventricle 
This breed is most commonly affected by Tetralogy of Fallot?
 
True or false: even with restricted activity and hydroxyurea therapy, you would expect most patient with tetralogy of fallot to die very young?
 
A depolarization heading towards the positive pole of a lead would produce a _____ deflection?
 
If the mean electrical axis is not found to be normal, what does this indicate?
 
If the P wave in lead II is too tall, it indicates this. Too wide indicates this.
Hint: if it's too wide and too tall, both are happening. 
 
If the R wave is too tall in lead II, this indicates?
QRS interval in lead II may also be longer. 
Which of the following is not a criteria on ECG for identifying right ventricular enlargement?
a)presence of s waves in leads I-III b)MEA is shifted to the right c)deep S waves in V3 d)all of the above are legit 

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