Science Quiz / Anesthesiology and Pharmacology FT2.2

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Can you name the Anesthesiology and Pharmacology FT2.2?

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Inhibition of cell wall assembly, damage to cell membrane, inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis. Which two main AMD mechanisms are missing?
 
 
Which of the following is NOT one of the six major classes of AMDs?
a) Beta-lactams b)cephalosporins c)aminoglycosides d)sulfonamides e)tetracyclines f) none of the above 
What four major classes of AMDs are bactericidal?
 
 
 
 
What two major classes of AMDs are bacteriostatic? What other separately mentioned important AMD is as well?
 
 
 
What are the three classes of penicillins?
 
 
 
What bacterial enzyme is targeted by penicillins? What does this inhibit?
 
The overall process, NOT 'crosslinking of peptidoglycans,' though that is what the enzymes do. 
True or false: penicillins will never distribute to the prostate or CNS?
 
What would we be risking if we gave a large oral dose of penicillin to a horse?
 
What neurological condition would be a contraindication to the use of penicillins in a patient?
 
Which of the following penicillins would you prescribe to treat a staphylococcal infection with penicillinase plasmids?
a)cloxacillin b)penicillin G c)amoxicillin d)amoxicillin with clavulanic acid or sulbactam e)A or D f)A, C or D 
Which of the following is not a difference beteween cephalosporins and penicillins?
a)acid stability b)effectiveness against gram negative aerobes c)likely side effects d) degree to which they are metabolized by the body 
True or false: most humans allergic to penicillin are also allergic to cephalosporins?
 
What two generations of cephalosporins have drugs approved for veterinary use?
generation _ and generation _ 
Which of the following drug classes would you pick from if you had to treat a gram negative aerobe?
a)3rd generation cephalosporin b)narrow spectrum penicillin c)extended spectrum penicillin d)1st generation cephalosporin e)c and d f)a and c 
True or false: aminoglycosides must be given parenterally for systemic treatments?
 
Macrolides, aminoglycosides and tetracyclines all work by inhibiting protein synthesis. Why are only aminoglycosides bactericidal?
Easiest format for answer: Aminoglycosides form ____ _____ 
True or false: aminoglycosides are completely ineffective against anaerobes?
 
True or false: aminoglycosides can be compouned with beta lactams on injection, for greater efficacy?
 
True or false: aminoglycosides can harm the ears of any patient, but only elderly patients will experience nephrotoxicity?
 
With which aminoglycoside would you associate the broadest spectrum? The most resistance to aminoglyosidases?
 
 
Which of the following would tetracyclines NOT be effective against?
a)gram positive aerobe b)gram negative aerobe c)gram negative anaerobe d)gram positive anaerobe e)atyical bacteria f)theoretically none of the above 
True or false: we want to avoid use of tetracyclines if at all possible, due to their broad spectrum, and the risk to commensals?
 
True or false: most tetracyclines are water soluble, but lipid soluble doxycycline can be used to treat CNS infections?
 
What are the two most common resistance methods for tetracyclines? (both are plasmid encoded)
Tetracyclinases do exist, but are not as common as these two. 
 
What subclass of tetracyclines have greater affinities for the binding site on ribosomes, and large side chains to inhibit efflux pumps?
 
True or false: erythromycin, a macrolide AMD, is most useful in respiratory infections and infections with intracellular pathogens?
 
Why do macrolides have poor effect in abscesses and some urine?
 
True or false: Macrolides enter cells, and concentrate to 70x plasma concentration in the CNS?
 
Despite the apparent 'safety' of macrolides, one of them is extremely cardiotoxic, and basically only used in cattle with UBRD. What is it?
 
What due you add to sulfonamide AMDs to potentiate them?
You form TMS. 
Sulfonamides are lacrimotoxic to which species?
 
True or false: sulfonamides are truly broad spectrum?
 
True or false: sulfonamides will not enter the CNS?
 
Which of the fluoroquinolones is commonly called by the trade name Baytril?
Used for many gram negative aerobes, staphylococcus (few other gram positive aerobes), and atypical bacteria 
True or false: all fluoroquinolones licensed for veterinary use are ineffective against obligate anaerobes?
 
Which of the following is an adverse effect of fluoroquinolones?
a)blindness b)achilles tendon rupture c)diarrhea d)increased chance of seizures e)all of the above 
Which enzymes are uniquely inhibited in their action by fluoroquinolones?
DNA ____ and _________ 
What is the reason for the ban on chloramphenicol in food-producing animals?
 
True or false: chloramphenicol distributes everywhere except the CNS?
 
True or false: chloramphenicol is broad spectrum?
 
Which of the following drugs is NOT a First line AMD?
a)penicilin G b)any 1st gen cephalosporin c)amikacin d)gentamycin e)tetracyclines f)TMS 
What class of AMDs is a threat to the cartilage of growing animals?
 
The creation of what substance is inhibited by sulfonamides, thereby inhibiting nucleic acid synthesis?
Important prenatal vitamin for humans... 
What AMD class would be associated with damage to growing long bones and discolouration of teeth?
 
Which drug class would be generally safer in non-herbivorous species?
 
Which drug class should only be used as second line drugs?
 
The off-label use of which AMD class is prohibited by law?
 
Which of the following drugs is NOT a second line AMD?
a)vancomycin b)amikacin c) 2nd gen cephalosporins d)fluoroquinolones e)3rd gen cephalosporins 
Give two examples of situations in which long term antimicrobial use would be indicated?
 
Which coagulation factors in the blood require vitamin K to function?
__, __, __, __ (in ascending roman numerical order) 
Phytonadione or menaquinone: which one is available for oral use?
 
Why might I give DDAVP to a patient before surgery?
 
What product, distilled, hilariously, from salmon sperm, would you give to a patient that you accidentally OD'd with heparin?
 
True or false: heparin can be given concurrently with a slower-acting oral anti-coagulant, but will only prevent the formation of new clots, not lyse existing ones?
 
Which drug, an alternative to heparin, is unsafe in pregnant patients, because unlike heparin it can cross the placenta?
 
What fractionated version of heparin is more commonly used due to its improved safety?
 
Aspirin works by irreversibly binding ___-_, whereas clopidogrel and ticlopidine inhibit the binding of ___ to the ____ receptor.
Both are antithrombotic. 
 
 
What prevents Streptokinase and Tissue Plasminogen factor from being systemic fibrinolytics?
 
What is the most common reason for therapeutic failure when dealing with EPO?
 
Drug classes that _____ central serotogenic activity may reduce aggression?
 
Psychotropic drugs are generally weakly ____, dissolve poorly in ____, and bind poorly with ____ in the blood. CNS penetration is good.
 
 
 
You administer a dose of diazepam to an anxious dog. Unfortunately, this disinhibits some latent aggression. What drug will you give to reverse the dose?
 
Which of the benzodiazepines would be best for use in liver patients, geriatrics and possibly cats?
Less metabolized by liver prior to excretion 
What do TCAs inhibit in the brain?
reuptake of ____ and ___ 
True or false: SSRIs are more selective than TCAs, and have less cholinergic and adrenergic effects?
 
What type of antidepressant would you be likely to treat a senile dog with?
 
What is the main use of the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone?
 
What is the clinical name for a state of relative indifference, sometimes produced by antipsychotics?
 
What might you spray to reduce a dog's anxiety in a new environment?
 

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