Science Quiz / Anesthesiology and Pharmacology 2

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Can you name the Anesthesiology and Pharmacology 2?

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True or false: all clinically useful cholinergic receptor antagonists are muscarinic?
 
What is the primary non-depolarizing NM blocker used in vet medicine? What drugs might you use to reverse it?
 
 
 
What is the remianing use for succinylcholine?
 
What conditions commonly are treated with muscle relaxants?
 
 
 
What is the mechanism of benzodiazepines actions? What is a possible adverse effect?
 
 
What muscle relaxant is highly recommended agaisnt in renal patients, has an unknown mechanism, uncertain efficacy, lots of side effects and generally sucks?
 
What muscle relaxant decresaes polysynaptic reflexes and is commonly used with injectible anesthetics for induction?
 
What is the only peripherally acting muscle relaxant?
 
______ induce sleepiness, _____ induce calmness.
 
 
What is the chemical name for a sedative hypnotic?
 
What is the chemical name for a sedative muscle relaxant?
 
What is the chemical name for a sedative analgesic?
 
What receptors are blocked by acepromazine?
___ and ___ 
What drug would you use to treat excessive vagal tone in a brachycephalic to whom you have administered acepromazine?
 
Why do you avoid using acepromazine in stallions?
 
Which of the following is not a contraindication for acepromazine use?
a)boxer b)breeding stallion c)organophosphate poisoning d) feline e) epileptic 
Xylazine may cause a dramatic drop in O2 exchange, especially in _____. what is another risk for this group?
 
 
What can you use to reverse xylazine's effects?
 
When used alone in large animals, xylazine's purpose is ____. With acepromazine, ____ ____. With ketamine, ____ _____. With ____ for short surgeries.
 
 
 
 
In which species is detomidine used? What is the danger with it?
 
 
Medetomidine and dexmedetomidine should not be used with opioids for what reason?
 
What makes romifidine more desirable than xylazine for dentals?
 
Which of yohimbine or atipamezole is more specific for alpha 2?
These are reversal agents for alpha 2 agonists. 
What is the most common induction mixture in small animal medicine?
___:___ _:_ (drug:drug #:#) 
You want a cat to eat within seconds of injecting a drug. Which drug do you choose?
 
For what reason is diazepam nearly always combined with other drugs?
 
Midazolam is similar to diazepam, but it is ____ _____, better for __ use, and has a ____ half life.
 
 
 
True or false: the butyrophenone azaperone can be used to reduce aggression when mixing pigs?
 
What is the mechanism of action of ketamine?
 
What are the four major uses of opioids?
 
 
 
 
Stimulation of which kind of opium receptor leads to dysphoria and hallucinations?
 
True or false: butorphanol + mu agonist opioids will produce poorer analgesia than the mu opioids alone
 
What is the mechanism of fatal overdosing of opioids? What drug would you use to reverse this?
 
 
What is the effect of opioids on the urinary bladder?
____ and ____ 
True or false: fentanyl has 100x the potency of morphine?
 
I am attempting to knock out a large wild animal. Unfortunately, I fail. What have I just injected myself with, and what does my companion now inject me with to save my life?
 
 
What opioid is commonly used for pre-medication, for less respiratory repression and good antitussive effect?
 
What opioid is used to induce canine vomition?
 
What two opioids are most commonly used for treating diarrhea?
 
What opioid may produce dysphoria in cats, but is commonly used at home for chronic pain treatment?
Less effective than butorphanol 
True or false: coxibs are not associated with GI ulceration or bleeding?
 
What are some contraindications for NSAID use?
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
What is the only irreversible blocker of COX enzymes? Which species should never get it?
 
 
What is the most popular non-selective NSAID for horses?
 
What was once considered an NSAID, but no longer, and is more of a toxicant than a treatment in vet medicine, especially in cats?
Antipyetic and analgesic like all NSAIDs, but NOT very good anti-inflammatory! weird... 
What somewhat selective COX 2 inhibitor is good in dogs, but not cats, and sometimes causes serious idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity?
 
What NSAID can be used in most species, is non-selective, and also inhibits LOX enzmes?
 
What NSAID is prefernetial for COX2, can be used in dogs, cats and cattle?
 
This NSAID is for horses and cattle, is non-selective, and may impair leukocyte function?
Also has a long duration of action (~30 hours) 
What drug for dogs is near 100% selective for COX2, at least in vitro?
 
What enzyme is indirectly blocked by glucocorticoid action?
 
True or false: the effect of glucocorticoids on blood immune cell levels is the same as a stress leukogram
 
You see a dog come into your clinic with obesity, hair loss (preferentially in the main body), muscle weakness and purpura. What's your guess?
 
Which of the following is not a corticosteroid?
a)methylprednisolone b)betamethasone c)flunixin d)dexamethasone e)cortisone 
True or false: it is necessary to wean a patient off chronic use of glucocorticoids?
 
True or false: side effects can become more common with higher OR lower doses within the therapeutic index?
 
How many grams of drug are present in 100mL of a 3% solution?
 
What enzyme in the plasma processes esters, giving them short duration of action?
 
The greater duration of amide local anesthetics is balanced by what drawback?
 
What is the mechanism of action of local anesthetics?
 
Why would one combine a vasoconstrictor with a local anesthetic? Where should you avoid this? Why?
 
 
 
Why might one use a lidocaine spray on a cat's throat?
 
When compared with lidocaine, bupivacaine has a ____ onset and a _____ duration
 
 
What LA is safer than the others, because it does not distribute to the heart or CNS?
Hint: it's the s enantiomer of another one. 
What is the best LA for use in the eye?
 
True or false: without epinephrine, LAs can increase blood flow to the skin, which may improve burn healing?
 
Why do we avoid using lidocaine in cats as much as possible?
 
Which LA is used mainly for equine nerve blocks?
Associated iwth better diffusion and less edema than others. 

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