Science Quiz / Anesthesiology and Pharmacology 1

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Can you name the Anesthesiology and Pharmacology 1?

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The fancy term for how a drug changes the body?
 
The fancy term for how a drug is handled and processed by the body?
 
In terms of the size of a drug, what makes 100MW the lower acceptable limit? what makes 1000 MW the upper one?
 
 
True or false: Drugs that bind through strong links to their targets are more selective?
 
What class of drugs is the easiest example of a drug with a cytoplasmic receptor?
 
True or false: Ion channel-associated receptors can open OR close the associated ion channel upon binding of the drug?
 
True or false: an inverse agonist is the same thing as an antagonist?
 
What is EC50?
 
The concentration of drug required to produce a given effect is _____. The magnitude of the cellular response produced upon drug binding to receptor is _____.
 
 
What measure is potency associated with? Efficacy? Of these two, which is usually more of interest to a clinician?
 
 
 
What makes low potency a concern for clinicians?
 
With a competitive antagonist present, the dose response curve shifts to the ____. EC50 is _____, Emax is _____.
 
 
 
With a noncompetitive antagonist present, Emax is _____, EC50 is _____
 
 
What are some mechanisms by which tolerance of a drug increases with long-term use?
 
 
 
Some drugs can have tolerance developed by the second dose. What is this more rapid/acute form of tolerance termed?
 
What is the usual cause of supersensitivity?
 
Difference in concentration x Area x permeability coefficient / membrane thickness=?
 
What is the pKa of a weak acid or base?
 
According to the henderson-hasselbalch equation, the logarithm of the concentration of protonated/unprotonated acid or base=?
 
Ion trapping of basic drugs occurs in ____ fluids.
 
What is the term for the fraction of administered dose that reaches systemic circulation unchanged? Does this depend on route of administration?
 
 
What is a major drawback to enteral administration? (Hint: think about livers.)
 
true or false: oily or insoluble drugs may be injected IV?
 
A- and B forms predominate at _____ pH, AH and BH+ forms predominate at _____ pH
 
 
What plasma protein is the major carrier of weak acids? Which one for weak bases?
 
 
Biotransformations are classified as ____ when they crate or uncover reactive groups, or _____ when they produce drug conjugates?
 
 
name an enzyme frequently involved in phase I biotransformations?
 
What species is deficient in the transferase enzymes that attach glucuronic acids to drugs?
 
We should administer a new dose at approximately every _th half-life, so that the drug does not accumulate.
 
True or false: the time taken to achieve steady-state does not depend on the rate at which the drug is administered?
 
What are two appropriate adaptive responses when continuing administration of a drug to a patient whose kidneys are failing?
___ or ___ 
When adjusting a dosing interval for renal failure, the new interval should equal the usual one x ____/____?
 
 
What is the term for the complete removal of drug from a certain volume of plasma per unit time per unit body weight?
 
If you divide the volume of distribution by the target plasma concentraiton, what do you calculate?
 
If you multiply target plasma concentration by clearance, what do you calculate?
 
To calculate the maintenance dose, dive dosing rate by _____, then mulitply by ___ _____
 
 
What are the two possible outcomes of ADRs?
___ or ___ 
What are the two subtypes of type A ADRs?
____ and ____ toxicity 
True or false: pharmacological toxicity can result from exaggerated effect on the intended receptor only?
 
What are the two types of type B ADR?
___ and ____ 
True or false: intrinsic toxicity results from physico-chemical properties of drug, without bioactivation, and non-specific binding to targets?
 
Of type A and B, which is more common? Which is dose-independent?
 
 
In which subtype of ADR do drug metabolites act as haptens, prompting a type I-IV reaction?
 
If the mechanism of an ADR is unknown, or unrelated to pharmacologic action, what is it?
 
True or false: all drug interactions are ADRs?
 
A drug alters the pH of the GI tract, increasing the absorption of another drug administered concurrently. This is an example of a ______ drug interaction?
 
A drug binds easily to a plasma protein, forcing more of another drug which would also bind it to be free in the blood. This is what kind of drug interaction?
 
Two drugs alter the same second messenger within shared target cells. This is an example of a _____ drug interaction
 
Over the counter drugs are what schedule?
 
Drugs available at retail stores are _____?
 
F2s are a subset of schedule I that are different in what two ways? (and/or)
 
 
Which of the following is NOT required on a schedule I F1 label?
a) name of drug b) strenght and quantity c) date dispensed d) instructions e) vet clinic address f) none of the above 
of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems, which is essential for life?
 
Which of the following is not a cholinergic neuron?
a) pre-ganglionic efferent neuron of PNS b) pre-ganglionic efferent neuron of SNS c) post ganglionic neuron of SNS d) motor fibre to skeletal muscle e) post-ganglionic neuron of PNS 
What type of adrenergic receptor do you associate with increased rate and contractility of the heart?
 
What type of adrenergic receptor would you associate with dilation of skeletal muscle blood vessels? Constriction of skin and splanchnic vessels?
 
 
What adrenergic receptor is responsible for contraction of sphincters in GI and GU tracts?
 
What adrenergic receptor is responsible for ejaculation and contraction of the pregnant uterus?
 
What two adrenergic receptors decrease motility of the GI tract?
 
Alpha receptors tend to lead to vascular smooth muscle contraction. What reflex decreases the heart rate as an indirect result?
 
Beta _ receptors lead to a direct increase in heart rate, Beta _ receptors lead to an indirect increase by decreasing BP.
 
 
What is epinephrine classified as? What is its primary use?
 
 
Which of the following is not a selective beta agonist?
A) clenbuterol B) isoproterenol C) dobutamine D) terbutaline E) phenylephrine F) both D and E G) both B and E 
Which two drugs might you use for their selective Beta 2 agonism, to treat cat asthma?
 
What drug would you use to selectively stimulate Beta 1 receptors, for cardiac support without significant tachycardia?
 
What beta agonist drug would you use to increase inotropy and chronotropy?
 
What are the primary treatment uses of phenylephrine, an alpha1 selective agonist? What's a potential side-effect?
_____ and _____ 
 
What is B1 receptor agonist in moderate doses, an alpha1 agonist in higher doses, and in low doses only affects D1 receptors in the kidney?
 
What direct and indirect acting sympathomimetics are used as nasal decongestants and for urinary tract incontinence in dogs?
 
 
 
Why would one add epinephrine to local anesthetics?
 
What is a major limitation to the use of alpha 1 agonists for the treatment of nasal congestion?
 
What would your drug of choice be for anaphylaxis?
 
Phenylephrine has a third use as a mydriatic. What does this mean?
 
This non-selective alpha antagonist is used to reverse epinephrine, and to diagnose pheochromocytomia-mediated hypertension
Also useful for hypertonic urethra due to functional obstructions. 
If one wished to treat functional urethral obstruction in small animals with less reflex tachycardia, which drug would they use?
 
What non-selective beta antagonist is used to treat supraventricular and ventricular tachyarrhythmias?
Side effects include thyrotoxicosis in cats, bradycardia and hypotension. contraindicated in asthmatics 
Why would one choose to use metoprolol or atenolol instead of propanolol?
 
What is the primary treatment use of carvedilol?
 
Of the muscarinic agonists which would you use for hypocontractile bladders? Which promotes miosis, and could treat glaucoma?
contraindicated with GI or urinary tract obstruction. 
 
What is the antidote if bethenechol chloride causes SLUD syndrome?
 
True or false: carbamate esters and quaternary alcohols have poor CNS penetration?
 
What muscarinic antagonist is most commonly used for ocular examination?
 
What prototypical antimuscarinic drug is used to treat bradyarrhthmias, as a mydriatic, and for treating organophosphate poisoning?
 
What antimuscarinic drug is prized for its relative selectivity for bladder smooth muscle?
 
What antimuscarinic quaternary ammonium compound is beneficial in bronchospasm associated respiratory disorders?
 
What antimuscarinic drug can be used to treat GI motility disorders, but is contraindicated by GI infections, and may cause dry mouth and eyes?
 

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