Science Quiz / Hoof and forelimb

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Can you name the Hoof and forelimb?

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What two tendinous cords are involved in the hindlimb reciprocal mechanism of the horse? Cranial then caudal
Hoof material has some hindlimb... my baaaad 
 
Which of the two tendinous cords involved in the hindlimb reciprocal mechanism is tensed when the animal is standing at rest?
Stifle is locked... hock is slightly flexed, but this tendon opposes the flexion of the hock... 
What is the other component of passive stay-apparatus of the hindlimb? (Covered on last quiz)
 
What is the order of the ligaments covering the plantar/palmar aspect of the equine fetlock joint?
Y, V, X  
 
 
What binds the proximal sesamoid bones together at the plantar/palmar aspect of the fetlock joint?
 
Aside from the straight sesamoidean, what other ligaments are found at the pastern joint?
all are plural. (___, ___, ____) 
What connects the distal sesamoid bone to coffin bone?
 
What is the insertion point for the deep digital flexor tendon
 
Fill in the blank: The equine leg has plantar ____, proximal digital ____ and distal digital _____ ligaments
 
What vessels become the medial and lateral plantar digital arteries?
 
What is immediately distal to the coronet region of the hoof?
 
what separates the sole from the hoof wall?
 
what is the name for the bony core of the carnivore claw?
 
which cranial nerve innervates the trapezius?
 
What muscle, important in the horse and present in the cow, runs caudally along the jugular furrow?
 
Between what two muscles would one look for the prescapular lymph nodes?
 
what are the three roles of synsarcosis in static weightbearing?
 
 
 
What muscle essentially supports the weight of the thorax in the manner of a sling extending down from the scapulae?
 
What two muscles support the scapulae to prevent adduction?
 
Which muscles supports the scapulae from below to prevent unwanted abduction?
 
What benefit is conferred upon the scapulae by the loss of the clavicle evolutionarily?
 
What three muscles of synsarcosis protract the leg by pulling forward from under the axis of rotation of the scapula?
alphabetical order 
 
 
What two muscles of synsarcosis protract the limb by pulling backwards from above the scapular axis of rotation?
 
 
What three muscles of synsarcosis retract the limb by pulling cranially dorsal to the axis of rotation of the scapula?
 
 
 
What two muscles of synsarcosis retract the limb by pulling caudally ventral to the axis of scapular rotation?
 
 
What nerve of the brachial plexus innervates the serratus ventralis?
 
What nerve of the brachial plexus innervates the latissimus dorsi?
 
What nerves of the brachial plexus innervate the pectoral muscles? What muscle found only in the horse is also innervated by these?
 
 
What nerve of the brachial plexus innervates the ventral skin of the thorax and abdomen, as well as the cutaneous trunci muscles?
 
What nerve of the brachial plexus innervates the subscapularis muscle?
 
What nerve of the brachial plexus leaves from C6 to 7, reaches the cranial margin of the neck fo the scapula, then winds around it to to reach the supra and infraspinatus muscles?
Injury to this nerve causes an obvious lateral movement of the shoulder joint during stride known as sweeny in horses. 
What nerve of the brchial plexus originates from the cervical region and supplies the coracobrachialis, biceps and brachialis muscles?
It remains separate from the median nerve in canines until the distal third of the forelimb, but in large animals it is submerged beneath for the majority of its course 
what cervical nerve of the brachial plexus passes around the shoulder joint to reach the lateral aspect of the limb?
supplies the deltoideus, capsularis, and teres muscles... flexors of shoulder joint 
what nerve of the brachial plexus runs from C7-T1 distally within the arm caudal to the brachial artery, then dives between the long and medial heads of the triceps?
supplies tricep heads, tensor fasciae antebrachii and anconeus, as well as all carpal and digital extensors including the ulnaris lateralis. 
What nerve of the brachial plexus runs from C8-T1 down the medial surface of the arm, and enters the forearm over the medial collateral ligament of the elbow joint, then runs under
supplies most of the flexor muscles of the carpus and digit. overlaps with ulnar, and injury does not usually manifest through abnormality of gait? 
After running beside the nerve from the last question, towards what major skeletal structure does the ulnar nerve deviate?
 
What is the innervation and blood supply to the stabilizer muscles of the shoulder provided by?
 
On which side of the spine of the scapula would you expect to find the supraspinatus?
 
On which side of the spine of the scapula would you expect to find the infraspinatus? What muscle is it deep to?
 
 
What muscle runs from the caudodorsal aspect of the scapula deep to the bone and connects to a tuberosity midway down the humerous?
 
The teres minor, teres major and the deltoideus all act as what?
 
What is the secondary role of the deltoideus?
 
What small muscle is found on the medial aspect of the shoulder joint passing between the scapula and the humoral head?
 
What large muscle is found deep to the scapula and inserts on the femoral head? (It is almost as large as the scapula itself)
 
What is a common clinical issue with the collateral ligaments of the shoulder?
('i hate you nate' is a valid answer. : P) 
Injury to which single nerve of the brachial plexus results in a non-weightbearing limb?
 
What are the three heads of the triceps in the forelimb? What extra head is found in the dog? What head is it deep to?
 
 
 
Relative to the lateral head of the triceps, where would you find the anconeus? Relative to the accessory head?
 
 
What group do the following muscles belong to? (triceps brachii, anconeus, tensor fascia antebrachii) What nerve innervates them?
 
 
What group of muscles is innervated by the musculocutaneous nerve?
 
What small band of muscle, cranial to the olecranon helps the equine bicep muscle remain taught in a standing animal, but relaxes when the elbow joint flexes?
 
Which elbow flexor is covered proximally by triceps by is superficial and may be palpated distally? (It is closely associated with the radial nerve's course)
 
Through which muscle would you stick a needle to gain access to the shoulder joint of the dog?
 
Through what would you stick a needle to access the horse shoulder joint?
 
Between what two structures would you find the bicipital bursa in the horse?
 
What are the two olecranon bursae of the horse?
 
What is the continuation of the axillary artery after the subscapular and circumflex cranial humeral branch off?
 
What two arteries provide collateral circulation to the shoulder region?
 
What are the three branches of the brachial artery?
 
 
 
Name the five components of the horse forelimb stay apparatus?
 
 
 
 
 
Distal to which joint does cranial change to dorsal and caudal to palmar in the forelimb?
 
What ligaments hold the carpal bones of the horse together?
 
what ligaments connects the accessory carpal bone to the splint bones?
 
What transverse superficial ligament forms part of the carpal canal, stretching from the accessory carpal bone to the medial aspect of the carpus?
 
What is the most medial of hte extensor muscles of the carpus and digits?
situated directly cranial to subcutaneous border of the radius, inserts on the proximal extremity of the third and sometimes second metacarpal bones. 
What is the most lateral member of that same group?
runs parallel to the ulnar flexor of the carpus on the outer aspect of the limb to insert on accessory carpal and upper end of most lateral metacarpal bone 
What muscle of the extensor group fo the carpus and digits is distinguished by its origin at the cranial surface of the radius, and attaches via tendon to the most medial metacarpa
 
How many terminations does the common digital extensor have in the dog? Cat? Horse? Cow?
 
 
 
 
What muscle runs immediately lateral to the common digital extensor? How many divisions/terminations does it have in the dog?
 
 
Whcih of the flexor muscles of the carpus and digits is most medial?
runs immediately caudal to subcutaneous border of radius, ends on the upper second (and sometimes third) metacarpal) 
Which of the flexor muscles of the carpus runs most lateral?
ends on the accessory carpal bone 
Which of the flexor muscles of the carpus and digits lies in the caudomedial part of the forearm, divides into a branch for each functional digit, and inserts around the proximal i
each division forms an arch around the corresponding slip of another muscle, which terminates more distally. 
Which of the flexor muscles of the digit passes through the carpal canal and divides into 1-4 digital branches, before inserting on a palmar aspect of a distal phalanx?
 
Which muscle does the equine proximal/radial check ligament wrap around?
 
What check ligament wraps around the deep digital flexor muscle in the horse?
 
What nerve innervates the dermatome running medially along the forelimb to the carpus?
 
What nerve innervates the dermatome running laterally down the leg and over the dorsal aspect of the paw?
 
What nerve(s) innervates the dermatome running caudolaterally down the leg and over the lateral paw?
 

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