Science Quiz / Histology Final

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Can you name the Histology Final?

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What is the general name for the class of hormones derived from cholesterol?
 
What class of hormone is made of modified amino acids?
 
What are the only exceptions to the rule that amino acid derived hormones do not have intracellular receptors?
 
Name the discrete glands of the endocrine system?
 
 
 
 
 
What testicular cell is an example of a mixed endocrine gland?
 
True or false: endocrine glands tend to have increased stroma and decreased parenchyma?
 
The general shapes of endocrine glands include:
 
 
 
What is the origin of ADH? Oxytocin?
 
 
What are the two components of the posterior pituitary?
 
 
What are the two componetns of the anterior pituitary?
 
 
What separates the pars distalis from the pars intermedia in some species including ruminants?
 
The ______ is an evagination of ______ ____(the future oral cavity
 
 
The _____ is a downgrowth/_____ of the _____
 
 
 
What vessel supplies the pars nervosa with blood and takes away ADH and oxytocin?
 
Where are the regulatory hormones for the cells of the adenohypophysis produced? released?
 
 
Where are the regulatory hormones produced by the adenohypophysis released into?
 
What cell type predominates in the pars tuberalis?
 
With which area of the pituitary would you associate colloid-filled follicles, basophils and chromophobes?
produces MSH, endorphins, ACTH and POMC 
What are the two types of acidophils in the pituitary?
GH... 
Prolactin... 
What are the two types of basophils in the pituitary?
FSH/LH... 
TSH... 
What are the two categories of chromophobic cells in the pituitary?
 
 
What is the name for the large axons in the pars nervosa containing hormones?
 
What is neurophysin I the carrier protein for?
 
What are the carrier proteins for oxytocin?
 
What is the blood supply to the thyroid?
 
What is the more precise name for the colloid within thyoid follicles?
 
Which is not characteristic of follicular cells? microvilli, increased golgi, non-polarized organelles, elongated mitochondria, distended rER
 
What is the other name for thyroxine?
 
Which cells produce calcitonin?
organelles are non-polar, mitochondria are small... 
Calcitonin causes _____ osteoclast activity and ______osteoblast activity
 
 
What four cells are present in the canine parathyroid gland?
post secretory... 
principal cell, secretes PTH 
Present in aged animals, multinucleate 
function unknown 
The oxyphil cell is especially characteristic in what species?
 
What is the developmental origin of the medulla of the adrenal glands? cortex?
 
 
What segment of the adrenal cortex produces mineralocorticoids? Glucocorticoids? Estrogen and Androgens?
 
 
 
What is produced by the adrenal medulla?
 
In what species would you expect to find a zona arcuata between the zona glomerulosa and fasciculata?
___, ___ and ____ 
Hypovolemic shock would result from a shortage of what hormone secreted by the zona glomerulosa?
 
Which segment of the adrenal cortex would show no signs of atrophy after hypophysectomy?
 
What is the result of Addison's disease?
 
What is the other name for Cushing's disease?
 
True or false: Glucocorticoids can flow through sinuses into the medulla of the adrenal gland and stimulate catecholamine release from chromaffin cells?
 
What are chromaffin cells derived from?
They are innervated by sympathetic neurons 
What colour is the result of the chromaffin reaction between catecholamines and potassium dichromate?
 
What is the normal ratio of norepinephrine to epinephrine release?
 
What are catecholamines ultimately derived from?
 
what does the pineal gland secrete?
 
What do alpha cells of the islets of langerhans produce in addition to glucagon?
____ and _____ 
What product of the juxtaglomerular cells regulates the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex?
 
True or false: a nephron begins at the renal corpuscle and ends at the collecting duct?
 
What are the three layers making up the basement membrane of the glomerulus?
inside to out 
What cells make up the visceral layer of bowman's capsule?
phagocytic capacity... 
What are the three components of the JG apparatus?
mod'd smooth muscle by the afferent arteriole 
epithelials of the DCT 
normally found as the visceral layer of bowman's capsule 
Which section of the nephron has microvilli with an extended glycocalyx?
 
Where are nuclei in the distal tubule located?
 
What two types of cells are present in the collecting duct?
principal cell type, few short microvilli 
infoldings on the lumenal membrane 
What is the spongy area near the renal papilla?
 
What is unique about the ureter of the horse?
 
How many layers of tunica muscularis in the proximal 2/3rds of the ureter?
 
How many layers of tunica muscularis in the distal third?
 
What distinguishes the outermost layer of the tunica muscularis of the bladder?
 
What are two components of a romanovsky stain? what are two types of romanovsky stains?
___ and ___ 
___ and ___ 
What shape are camellid erythrocytes?
 
What is unusual about the erythrocytes of birds and reptiles?
 
Which species is most prone to rouleux formation?
 
What are the two components of heme?
 
 
A deficiency in what produces hyperchromic RBCs?
 
Poikilocytosis refers to variation in what? How about anisocytosis?
 
 
Heinz bodies are composed of? How about Howell-Jolly bodies?
 
 
What are the two segments of cytoplasm present in thrombocytes?
 
Which relevant species lacks the open canilicular system in their platelets?
 
What are three components of thrombocytic alpha granules?
 
 
 
Lysozyme, lactoferrin and phagocytin are substances found in ____ granules of _____
 
 
Defensins, myeloperoxidase and ____ _______ are found in _____ _____ of ____
 
 
 
What would you expect during a left shift?
 
A leukocyte with a visible bilobed nucleus and granules is likely either _____ or ______
 
 
Histaminase, ribonuclease and Beta-glucuronidase are found in what leukocyte?
 
What are the three main functions of eosinophils?
 
 
 
What are the three main components of basophil granules?
 
 
 
What are azurophilic (non-specific) granules in monocytes?
 
What T cells would you associate with humoral immunity? Cell-mediated?
 
 
What are the four sites of hematopoesis in the fetus?
 
 
 
 
A pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell (PHSC) progresses to a CFU-S (spleen). What are the three options it can progress to next?
 
 
 
If a CFU-B is formed, what are two next stages in its maturation?
____ followed by _____ 
List the phases in the formation of erythrocytes, starting from rubriblast, in order.
 
What two stains cause reticulocyte appearance?
 
 
What kind of nucleus is present in a normoblast/metarubricyte?
 
A prominent nucleolus and larger overall cell size distinguish what cell from the rubriblast?
 
What are the stages in granulocyte formation, from first to last? (Leave out the specific granule colour descriptors)
 
What relevant species have megakaryocytes in spleen rather than bone marrow?
___ and ___ 
What organ grows from the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches?
 
Which region of the thymic lobules tends to be darker? Why?
 
 
What cell of the thymus is characterized by interconnections with desmosomes and contains intermediate filaments?
They secrete thymosins, thymopoietins, etc. 
What are the two components of the blood-thymus barrier?
 
 
What vessels are found in the cortico-medullary junciton of the thymus?
 
What structures are formed in the thymic medulla by epithelial reticular cells?
 
What folds project from the walls into the lumen of the bursa of fabricius?
 
Which part of the nodules in the walls of the bursa of fabricius is avascular and sparsely populated by lymphoid cells nad epithelioreticular cells?
 
Where do you find HEVs in lymph nodes?
 
What are the three types of lymphatic sinuses?
 
 
 
What is located centrally in each splenic nodule (white pulp)?
 
Dogs nad hroses have what type of spleen?
 
Birds, rabbits, and humans have what type of pulp predominating in their spleen?
 
Ruminants and pigs have what type of spleen?
 
What is the order of blood flow in the spleen?
 
What kind of lymph node is unique to ruminants? where is it often found?
 
 

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