Science Quiz / Biochem 1

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What are the three types of linkages of cell surface receptors?
 
 
 
Which disease involves an autoimmune response to acetylcholine receptors on the post-synaptic membrane? What are the two potential forms of this disease?
 
____ or _____ 
What enzyme is activated by a G-alpha-S protein subunit bound to GTP? What is it's substrate? It's product?
 
 
 
What are two examples of diseases where G protein-linked receptors are not properly inactivated?
 
 
What is the function of G-alpha-I subunits, when activated?
 
Which of the following is not an example of how G-protein signal transduction pathways are shut off?
Dissociation of ligand from receptor, hydrolysis of GTP to GDP, dephosphorylation of enzymes by phosphorylases? 
Which enzyme is activated by cAMP: Glycogen synthase or glycogen phosphorylase?
 
Acquired myasthenia gravis has a bi-modal onset at either 1-___ years or 9-___ years of age.
 
 
If an animal is born with myasthenia gravis, by what age will it present?
 
Complete this sentence: the G-alpha-Q subunit is associated with the ______ of ______
 
a certain enzyme... 
What drugs are more commonly used in humans than dogs to treat myasthenia gravis?
 
What are the most common drugs used to treat myasthenia gravis in dogs?
 
What does tensilon inhibit during the tensilon test for myasthenia gravis?
 
What are the two different forms of tyrosine kinase activities found in enzyme-linked receptiors?
____ and ____ tyrosine kinase activity 
Insulin and IGF receptors use what kind of linkage?
 
Which one of phosphorylases or kinases uses inorganic phosphate as substrate?
 
True or false: activation of receptor-linked tyrosine kinase receptors occurs through phosphorylation of the intracellular domain after the ligand binds the linked receptor?
 
True or false: there is only one way to deactivate a receptor-linked tyrosine kinase?
 
True or false: phosphorylation always activates proteins?
 
Which of the following is not an amino acid residue that can be phosphorylated?
serine, threonine, alanine, tyrosine 
By what mechanism is a glucose transporter of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue cells activated?
 
STAT proteins are associated with the functionality of what receptor-associated tyrosine kinase?
 
The addition of anticoagulants prevents ____ from becoming _____. Neither one contains ____.
 
 
 
What percentage of the normal/healthy population will fall outside 2 s.d.s of the mean on reference intervals?
 
True or false: level of stress, and fed or fasted states can affect biochemical test results?
 
True or false: the presence of mitochondrial enzymes in serum in appreciable amounts likely indicates severe cell injuries?
 
ALT stands for? What compartment of the cell is it found in?
 
 
What are the two isoenzymes of aspartate aminotransferase (AST)?
____ and ____ 
What types of tests are generally used to measure serum enzyme activities?
 
What two ion concentrations are affected by the use of many anticoagulants?
____ and ____ 
What action do EDTA, citrate and oxalate perform on calcium?
 
What coagulant affects BUN?
 
Excessive back pressure on a syringe, rough handling and extreme temperatures can cause?
 
Which cells of the islets of langerhans would you associate with somatostatin?
 
What is the secretory product of alpha cells (islets of langerhans)?
 
What enzyme, found on the intestinal epithelium, converts trypsinogen to trypsin?
 
True or false: Insulin only affects tissue uptake of glucose?
 
Hypoglycemia stimulates ______ secretion and inhibits ______ secretion.
 
 
True or false: glucagon directly inhibits insulin secretion?
 
What two areas of the body store glycogen?
 
The catabolic phase usually begins __-__ hours after the last meal?
__-__ 
What two enzymes work to convert starch to e-Dextrins, maltotriose and maltose?
 
What three VFAs are produced from glucose and used by ruminants?
 
 
 
_____ is the primary glucose transporter in the liver, and is not responsive to insulin.
 
____ is the primary glucose transporter in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, and responds to insulin
 
Upon entering the cell, glucose may enter glycogenesis, glycolysis (aerobic or anaerobic), the _____ ______ pathway or the glucuronate pathway.
 
What enzyme converts glucose and ATP into ADP and glucose-6-phosphate?
 
What enzyme converts pyruvate to acetyl coA? What enzyme converts acetyl coA to citrate?
 
 
What is the other substance required aside from acetyl coA for synthesis of citrate?
 
What is the net ATP yield of anaerobic glycolysis? Aerobic?
 
 
What are the two main products of the hexose monophosphate pathway?
Other intermediates are produced as well. 
What two organs perform gluconeogenesis?
 
True or false: by the Cori cycle, lactate from working muscles can be made into glucose by the liver?
 

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