Miscellaneous Quiz / History & Systems of Psychology

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Can you name the History & Systems of Psychology?

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belief that all beliefs can be proved false; thus, to avoid the frustration of being wrong, it is best to believe in nothing; all philosophy is equally valid
their main goal was to discover the origin of all things
he worshipped the sun and believed in the heliocentric solar system; he was burned at the stake for his beliefs
Greek physician; assumed all ailments are physical not mystical; theory of humors; holistic medicine; physiologically-based personality theory
cosmologist; offered atoms as physis: world made of atoms, mind of fire atoms; 1st completely materialistic view
the shift from absolute truth to relative truth; belief that 'truth' was what people thought it to be
study of the past for its own sake, without attempting to interpret and evaluate it in terms of current knowledge and standards
research activities performed by scientists as they explore the implications of a paradigm
belief that specific causes of behavior cannot be completely known
Democritus was a __________
belief that truth cannot be found through reason because of flaws in our reasoning process
he argued that the earth revolved around the sun, but waited until his death to publish his work
cosmologist; considered to be the first philosopher; started critical tradition; believed water was physis
Bacon's term for blind allegience to a viewpoint, also referring to religion
Galileo proposed this as the primary quality of valid information
he epitomized Scholasticism; sought to 'Christianize' the works of Aristotle and to show that both faith and reason lead to the truth of God's existence
Galileo proposed this as the secondary quality of valid information
Xenophanes was a _________
belief that we can reach the truth through experience and observation
cosmologist; believed that an abstract world of numbers influenced the physical world and that math leads to the real truth
mind that simply stores and organizes one's experiences with the physical world
Sophist; taught that truth varies from personal experiences; man can never step into same river once b/c it is different for each person to beg
the laws Aristotle thought responsible for holding mental events together in memory
viewpoint that existed during the Renaissance; emphasized individualism, personal relationship with God, interest in classical wisdom, negative attitude toward Aristotle's work
belief that the good life consists of seeking pleasure and avoiding pain; life in moderation
Bacon's term for biases in words and labels we use; stifles scientific advancement
HintAnswer
Greek philosopher; truth can be known through observations + thinking; all things have a soul and purpose; Golden Mean; theories of causation; opened psych topics of study
this philosophy of life helped ease people's suffering through the Dark Ages
his philosophy of science is based on a problem which leads to observation to theory and then criticism (deductive); science advances b/c scientists disagree
belief that human thought or behavior is freely chosen by the individual; generated within free will
he showed several of Aristotle's 'truths' to be false; used telescope to observe solar system; advocated experiments but couldn't use 'mind' as subject of experiment
Sophist; believed that each person has own subjective reality and this reality can never be accurately communicated to another person
belief that all things consist of force or soul that is not governed by law
belief that everything that occurs does so b/c of known or knowable causes; if these causes were known in advance, an event can be predicted with complete accuracy
he tried to advance empiricism; research was inductive (4 idols); 'teeth in the mouth of a horse'
a viewpoint shared by many scientists while exploring their science and determines what constitutes legitimate problems and how to solve these problems
a primary substance or element from which everything is thought to be derived
Alcmaeon was a _________
Pythagoras was a __________
belief that what one experiences mentally is the same as what is present physically
Plato's description of individuals who live according to shadows of reality provided by senses instead of true reality beyond sensory experience
philosophy that emphasized the most mystical aspects of Plato's philosophy
Greek philosopher; believed reasoning was pathway to truth; senses can't be trusted; all-knowing soul; Reminiscence Theory of Knowledge
belief that of several, equally effective explanations, the one that makes the fewest assumptions should be accepted; simplest is most likely to be true
transitional philosopher; believed that the world was fixed, solid, motionless; all change or motion was an illusion; if we can think it, it must exist
Bacon's term for personal biases
belief that important human attributes such as intelligence are largely inherited
belief that one should live according to nature's plan; accept one's fate with indifference or with courage
Protagoras was a _________
his philosophy of science is based on observations leading to theory; 'observe and report' (inductive)
mind that transforms, interprets, understands, or values physical experience; seeks meaning and works as integrate whole
they advanced the field of medicine through observations and thinking; found that body heals itself
HintAnswer
cosmologist; suggested first theory of evolution and a theory of perception; four universal elements; two forces: love and strife
he proposed world as mechanic place with physical laws and no exceptions; theory of gravitation; guided psychology
Hippocrates was a _________
interpreting and evaluating historical events in terms of contemporary knowledge and standards
his philosophy of science is based on a problem leading to observation to theory, which all fit into a certain paradigm
he introduced the Dialectic method and nominalism; one of the first Western philosopher-theologians to emphasize Aristotle's works
Empedocles was a __________
Sophist; believed that humans create all truth; noted that Olympian gods possessed human characteristics
belief that truth can only be attained through reason and logic
Bacon's term for biases that we all share, humanity's natural tendency to view the world selectively
Thales was a __________
Greek philosopher; believed in a partial truth -- with the right method; something that is real about all things (essence); inductive definition
belief that the best life is one lived close to nature and away from the rules and regulations of society
the systematic attempt to rationally categorize or explain empirical observations
Gorgias was a _________
he invented analytic geometry; new philosophy based on science and logic; made thought and reason respectable again; looked for self-evident truth -- 'I think, therefore I am'
valid information
transitional philosopher; his paradox concluded that we can never reach our destination
technique used by Socrates that examined many individual examples of a concept to discover what they all had in common
Whose philosophy was closest to that of modern scientific methods?
Galileo was not optimistic about __________ as a science; didn't think man could observe carefully enough to understand man
the spirit of the times
After the cosmologists, these two philosophers were important because they suggested that our senses are not reliable; everything is an illusion
belief that all behavior can be explained by material or physical principles
Greek physician; moved away from mysticism; health=equilibrium; first to dissect human bodies

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