Science Quiz / 'M' in Math

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Can you name the mathematical terms or mathematicians which begin with M?

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Hint'M' Answer
In the measurement of angles, this is one sixtieth of a degree.
Also known as 'clock arithmetic,' this system is concerned with the remainder of integers when divided by a certain positive integer n.
This constant is the prime-number analogue of the Euler-Mascheroni constant.
A measure of how large an object is; the _____ of a complex number a+bi is represented by sqrt(a^2 + b^2).
A rectangular array of elements in rows and columns. They can be added, subtracted, and multiplied together if their size is right - it won't help you dodge any bullets though!
Roughly speaking, a polynomial with only one term.
French mathematician most known for his prime numbers, those which can be expressed as 2^p - 1 for prime numbers p. e.g. 3, 7, 31, 127, 2147483647.
Also known as the Law of Detachment, this argument states that ((P → Q) ∧ P ) → Q.
In various branches of mathematics, this term is used equivalently to 'function.' One may also say that, e.g., a function f : R ↦ C ___s the real numbers to the complex numbers.
Indian mathematician (c. 1350 - c. 1425) known for discovering power series approximations for trigonometric functions.
A topological space that has a neighborhood that is homeomorphic to a euclidean space at every point.
This theorem relating the way two cevians of a triangle divide each other and two of the triangle's sides. It is commonly expressed as AF/FB * BD/DC * CE/EA = -1.
The formal definition of the 'size' of a set in n-dimensional Euclidean space. Intuitively, the Lebesgue _____ of the interval [0,1] is 1.
A _____ is a function defining the distance between elements of a set making it a _____ space. For example, the standard _____ for Euclidean space is absolute difference/
Hint'M' Answer
A special case of the Taylor series, this type of power series is always centered about 0.
A point on a line segment dividing each part into half of the whole.
In a triangle, a line segment formed by a vertex and the midpoint of the opposite side. Also, the middle element of a sample.
This set of seven problems were given a bounty of $1,000,000 in 2000 by the Clay Mathematics Institute. Only one, the Poincaré conjecture, has been correctly proven.
An n x n array of numbers, typically the integers from 1 to n^2, such that every row, column, and main diagonals has the same sum.
This mathematical operation represents iterated addition.
The process of making something as large as possible. If the object is a function, calculus will come in handy.
A complex analytic function with large connections with number theory. It was famously used to prove the Taniyama-Shimura conjecture and, thus, Fermat's Last Theorem.
A corollary of Rolle's Theorem, this states that there exists a c in [a,b] such that f'(c) = (f(b)-f(a))/(b-a) for a function f(x) continuous on [a,b] and differentiable on (a,b).
A rational number expressed with its whole and fractional part separately, e.g. 4 2/3.
Branch of calculus involving the Gradient, Divergence, Stokes', and Green's theorems.
The geometric _____ of a sample of n numbers is found by taking the nth root of their product. Also, the 'M' in the inequality 'RMS ≥ AM ≥ GM ≥ HM.'
The global _____ of the parabola y = x^2 - 4x + 2 occurs at its vertex.
The most frequent element in a given sample.
Hint'M' Answer
Most known for developing the π approximation π/4 = 4 arctan 1/5 - arctan 1/239; similar formulae are denoted _____-like formulae named after him.
A probabilistic primality test similar to the Fermat primality test. The deterministic version relies on the truth of the Riemann Hypothesis.
A numerical computing environment and programming language developed by MathWorks.
Given a partition of an interval on the real line, the _____ of the partition is the longest sub-interval. It is referred to as the 'norm' in some countries.
A probability puzzle in mathematics concerning goats, cars, and the reason why you should always switch doors when asked. It is based on the game show Let's Make a Deal.
He introduced μ(n), a function with average order of zero, a statement equivalent to the prime number theorem. However, he is perhaps more famous for his one-sided strip.
Mathematician who developed the notion of a fractal, a self-similar, infinitely intricate shape.
An equation which serves to represent real-world behavior. These are commonly used in analysis of business or the economy in general.
A mathematical system that undergoes changes from one state to another on a state space. These have been used to calculate the most commonly landed on Monopoly properties.
Two events which cannot occur simultaneously are said to be this.
The number of times a member of a multiset appears in that multiset. This notion appears most commonly when dealing with polynomial roots.

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