Science Quiz / 'M' in Math

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Can you name the mathematical terms or mathematicians which begin with M?

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Hint'M' Answer
Most known for developing the π approximation π/4 = 4 arctan 1/5 - arctan 1/239; similar formulae are denoted _____-like formulae named after him.
Two events which cannot occur simultaneously are said to be this.
A corollary of Rolle's Theorem, this states that there exists a c in [a,b] such that f'(c) = (f(b)-f(a))/(b-a) for a function f(x) continuous on [a,b] and differentiable on (a,b).
Also known as the Law of Detachment, this argument states that ((P → Q) ∧ P ) → Q.
The process of making something as large as possible. If the object is a function, calculus will come in handy.
A measure of how large an object is; the _____ of a complex number a+bi is represented by sqrt(a^2 + b^2).
Indian mathematician (c. 1350 - c. 1425) known for discovering power series approximations for trigonometric functions.
This constant is the prime-number analogue of the Euler-Mascheroni constant.
A probability puzzle in mathematics concerning goats, cars, and the reason why you should always switch doors when asked. It is based on the game show Let's Make a Deal.
An n x n array of numbers, typically the integers from 1 to n^2, such that every row, column, and main diagonals has the same sum.
Mathematician who developed the notion of a fractal, a self-similar, infinitely intricate shape.
French mathematician most known for his prime numbers, those which can be expressed as 2^p - 1 for prime numbers p. e.g. 3, 7, 31, 127, 2147483647.
Roughly speaking, a polynomial with only one term.
The number of times a member of a multiset appears in that multiset. This notion appears most commonly when dealing with polynomial roots.
Hint'M' Answer
An equation which serves to represent real-world behavior. These are commonly used in analysis of business or the economy in general.
He introduced μ(n), a function with average order of zero, a statement equivalent to the prime number theorem. However, he is perhaps more famous for his one-sided strip.
A rational number expressed with its whole and fractional part separately, e.g. 4 2/3.
The global _____ of the parabola y = x^2 - 4x + 2 occurs at its vertex.
Given a partition of an interval on the real line, the _____ of the partition is the longest sub-interval. It is referred to as the 'norm' in some countries.
The formal definition of the 'size' of a set in n-dimensional Euclidean space. Intuitively, the Lebesgue _____ of the interval [0,1] is 1.
The most frequent element in a given sample.
A point on a line segment dividing each part into half of the whole.
The geometric _____ of a sample of n numbers is found by taking the nth root of their product. Also, the 'M' in the inequality 'RMS ≥ AM ≥ GM ≥ HM.'
A topological space that has a neighborhood that is homeomorphic to a euclidean space at every point.
This mathematical operation represents iterated addition.
In various branches of mathematics, this term is used equivalently to 'function.' One may also say that, e.g., a function f : R ↦ C ___s the real numbers to the complex numbers.
A probabilistic primality test similar to the Fermat primality test. The deterministic version relies on the truth of the Riemann Hypothesis.
This set of seven problems were given a bounty of $1,000,000 in 2000 by the Clay Mathematics Institute. Only one, the Poincaré conjecture, has been correctly proven.
Hint'M' Answer
This theorem relating the way two cevians of a triangle divide each other and two of the triangle's sides. It is commonly expressed as AF/FB * BD/DC * CE/EA = -1.
A _____ is a function defining the distance between elements of a set making it a _____ space. For example, the standard _____ for Euclidean space is absolute difference/
In the measurement of angles, this is one sixtieth of a degree.
Branch of calculus involving the Gradient, Divergence, Stokes', and Green's theorems.
In a triangle, a line segment formed by a vertex and the midpoint of the opposite side. Also, the middle element of a sample.
A special case of the Taylor series, this type of power series is always centered about 0.
A numerical computing environment and programming language developed by MathWorks.
A mathematical system that undergoes changes from one state to another on a state space. These have been used to calculate the most commonly landed on Monopoly properties.
A complex analytic function with large connections with number theory. It was famously used to prove the Taniyama-Shimura conjecture and, thus, Fermat's Last Theorem.
A rectangular array of elements in rows and columns. They can be added, subtracted, and multiplied together if their size is right - it won't help you dodge any bullets though!
Also known as 'clock arithmetic,' this system is concerned with the remainder of integers when divided by a certain positive integer n.

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