Can be linear or non-linear/ordinary or partial/Navier-Stokes equation & Fick's Law of Diffusion are equations of this form

1st says that diffusive flux goes high to low concentrations proportional to concentration gradient/2nd predicts how diffusion causes the concentration to change with time

In solid-state physics this is the minimum thermodynamic work (i.e. energy) needed to remove an electron from a solid to a point in the vacuum immediately outside the solid surface

2nd order differential equation important for many problems of wave propagation and static potentials in cylindrical or spherical coordinates

Integral transform used for solving differential & integral equations for analysis of linear time-invariant systems (i.e. elect. circuits, harmonic oscillators, optical devices)

Reversible mathematical transform that expresses a mathematical function of time as a function of frequency

Mathematical function for dynamical system that summarizes system dynamics/used in mechanics for polar, cylindrical, & spherical coord. systems/used to derive Einstein field eq's

Theorem from differential geometry & vector calculus that relates the surface integral of the curl to the line integral of the vector field

Special case of Stokes theorem/relates a line integral around a simple closed curve to the double integral of the region bounded by the curve

Differential equations arising from Newton's 2nd law that describe the motion of fluid substances/3-D version is a Millenium problem

Formula from atomic physics that describes wavelengths of spectral lines of many chemical elements

Partial differential equation involving the Laplacian, wavenumber, & amplitude that can be used to analyze vibrating membranes, 3-D solutions, & paraxial approximations

2nd-order partial differential equation/solutions are the harmonic functions/used in Potential Theory & physics app to describe potentials

Denoted w/inverted delta, also called del or nabla/like derivative in 3-D/points in direction of greatest rate of increase of multivariable function/magnitude is the slope

Series that decomposes a periodic function into the sum of sine & cosine functions/used in signal processing, control theory, waves

Calculates reduction potential of a half-cell or total voltage of full cell (electrochemical cells) at non-standard rates

Matrix of all first-order partial derivatives of a vector-valued function/used in multivariable calculus to perform a change of variables for a multiple integral

Organic chemical reaction between a conjugated diene and a substituted alkene (dienophile) to form a cyclohexene system

Central tool in combinatorial & geometric group theory/graph that encodes the abstract structure of a group

Type of group based upon field extensions that relate to polynomials

Denoted by 'del squared'/differential operator given by the divergence of the gradient of a function/used in Hemholtz eq, wave eq, & Schrodinger eq

Theorem from group theory that states that every group G is isomorphic to a subgroup of the symmetric group acting on G

Partial differential eq in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics that describes how quantum state of a physical system changes with time

Symbolized by Greek psi/solution function of Schrodinger equation/describes quantum state of particle or system in isolation

Thought experiment relating to quantum mechanics where a cat, poison, & radioactive source are in sealed box/cat is simultaneously alive & dead

Thought experiment to show 2nd Law of Thermo has only 'statistical certainty'/container of gas at equilibrium is divided with door opened by namesake creature/decreases entropy

Expulsion of a magnetic field from a superconductor during its transition to the superconducting state

Vector resulting from the cross product of the electric & magnetic field vectors

Boundary which determines whether a star that goes supernova will turn into a neutron star or black hole

Maximum mass of a stable white dwarf star/named for 19 year-old Indian-American astrophysicist/above this mass would undergo gravitational collapse into neutron star or black hole

Mass of substance altered at electrode is directly proportional to charge transfered there/for DC charge, mass of altered material at electrode is dir prop to elements equiv weight

Relates the attenuation of light to the properties of the material through which the light is traveling

Gives statistical behavior of thermodynamic system not in thermo equil/fluid w/temp gradients in space cause heat to flow from hotter to colder regions by random transport

Gives the angles for coherent and incoherent scattering from a crystal lattice

Operator in quantum mechanics corresponding to total energy of the system (kinetic E of particles + potential E)/denoted by H, Ȟ, or Ĥ/of fundamental importance in quantum theory

Set of quasilinear hyperbolic equations governing adiabatic and inviscid flow/Navier-Stokes Eq's reduce to these when viscosity & thermal conductivity are zero

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