History Quiz / HCHS Schools of Philosophy

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Can you name the schools of philosophy by description?

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DescriptionSchool/Group
System of thought in which the objects of knowledge are held to be in some way dependent on the activity of mind/reality as we know it is fundamentally mental or immaterial
System of Catholic theology & philosophy in medieval Europe based on Aristotelian logic & writings of the early Church Fathers
Emphasizes the individual person as a free and responsible agent determining their own development through acts of the will
View or theory that the self is all that can be known to exist/anything outside one's own mind is unsure & may not exist outside the mind
Theory based on observation & scientific study about how people learn/people construct their own understanding and knowledge of the world, through experiencing things
Live in virtue, in agreement with nature/live simply free from all possessions/rigorous training/reject desires for wealth, power, sex, fame/virtue is the only true good
System that holds that every rationally justifiable assertion can be scientifically verified or is capable of logical or mathematical proof/rejects metaphysics & theism
Reality exists independently of consciousness/moral purpose is pursuit of one's own happiness/requires laissez-faire social & economic system
View that regards reason as chief source & test of knowledge/reality has an inherently logical structure/a class of truths exists that the intellect can grasp directly
View that the moral action is the one that maximizes usefulness, including pleasure, economic well-being, & the lack of suffering
View that assesses the truth of meaning of theories or beliefs in terms of the success of their practical application/not dealing with morality but w/truth
View that some aspect of our reality is ontologically independent of our conceptual schemes, perceptions, & beliefs/truth consists in the mind's correspondence to reality
DescriptionSchool/Group
Pleasure is the highest good/live modestly, gain knowledge of world, & limits of one's desires/attain tranquility, freedom from fear, & absence of bodily pain
Virtue (the highest good) is based on knowledge & the wise live in harmony w/divine Reason & are indifferent to fortune, pleasure, & pain
View that claims that it is not possible to have an adequate justification for one's beliefs sufficient to consider them 'true'
View that knowledge, truth, and morality exist in relation to culture, society, or historical context, and are not absolute
Began with Plotinus/systematic description of the derivation of the whole of reality from a single principle, 'the One'
System critical of foundational assumptions & universalizing tendency of Western philosophy/emphasized power relationships, personalization, & discourse in 'construction' of truth
Holds that positive facts (derived from sensory experience, interpreted through logic) form the exclusive source of all knowledge/based on empiricism
View that all knowledge is derived from sense-experience
Rejection of all religious and moral principles, often in the belief that life is meaningless
Worldview & method of societal analysis focused on class relations & conflict/materialist interpretation of historical development & dialectical view of social transformations
Socially progressive trend of thought that affirms the power of human to create & improve their environment w/aid of practical experimentation, scientific knowledge, or technology

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