# HCHS Relativity (Basic)

## Can you answer the questions regarding relativity?

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DescriptionTerm
A decrease in length measured by the observer of an object which is traveling at any non-zero velocity relative to the user, formally called Lorentz-FitzGerald contraction
Boundary in spacetime beyond which events cannot affect an outside observer/point at which gravitational pull becomes so great as to make escape impossible/point of no return!
Radius of sphere such that if all mass of object were compressed w/in it the escape velocity would be the speed of light/below this radius light can't escape & black hole is formed
Proposed in 1905 in 'On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies'/assumes laws of physics are invariant in all inertial systems & c in a vaccuum is same for all observers
Concept that the mass of an object or system is a measure of its energy content
Theoretical framework in which the point-like particles of particle physics are replaced by one dimensional objects, first studied in late 1960s as a theory of strong nuclear force
Actual difference of elapsed time between 2 events as measured by observers either moving relative to each other or differently situated from gravitational masses
Postulated by Oort in 1932/hypothetical matter that cannot be seen with telescopes but accounts for most of the matter in the Universe
Also called Noodle Effect/vertical stretching and horizontal compression of objects into long thin shapes in a very strong non-homogeneous gravitational field such as near black ho
DescriptionTerm
Object that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence
Hypothetical, unknown form of energy which permeates all of space & tends causes universe to expand at accelerating rate
Thought experiment in special relativity involving identical twins/one makes space journey at high-speed/returns home to find other twin aged more
Location where quantities used to measure the gravitational field become infinite in a way that does not depend on the coordinate system/universe at beginning of Big Bang
Represents energy consumed when nucleus of an atom was formed/difference between the sum of the nucleons in an atom & its atomic mass (which is always less)
Happens when light or other electromagnetic radiation from an object is increased in wavelength or shifted to the red end of the spectrum
Geometric theory of gravitation/published 1915/curvature of spacetime is directly related to energy & momentum of matter & radiation present/represented by Einstein field equations
Mathematically defined region of spacetime exhibiting such a strong gravitational pull that no particle or electromagnetic radiation can escape from it

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