HCHS/HCMS Basic Chemistry Terms 2

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Regions of space around the nucleus of an atom where an electron is likely to be found/named s, p, d, & f in atoms
Electrons in the outermost electron shell of an isolated atom of an element
Reduction in the effective nuclear charge on the electron cloud because electrons in the cloud repel nearby electrons while the protons in the nucleus attract them
Distance from the atomic nucleus to the outermost stable electron orbital in an atom that is at equilibrium/decreases from left to right/increases from top to bottom
Measure of the energy contained in the crystal lattice of a compound, equal to the energy that would be released if the component ions were brought together from infinity
Energy released by an atom when an electron is added to it or energy required to detach an electron from a singly charged anion/increases from left to right
Electronegativity scale based on arithmetic mean of the first ionization energy (Ei) and the electron affinity (Eea)/also called absolute electronegativity
Class of about 90 elements in periodic table/are malleable, fusible, & ductile/typically hard in solid state/good electrical conductors
Negatively charged ion
Physical constant approximately equal to probable distance between the nucleus & the electron in a hydrogen atom/5.29 x 10^-11 meters
Minimum amount of energy required to remove 1 electron from each atom in a mole of atoms in the gaseous state/increases from left to right/decreases from top to bottom
Elements lacking in metallic qualities/are easily vaporized, have low elasticity, & are good insulators of heat & electricity
Positively charged ion
Most commonly used scale for measuring electronegativity/scale of 0 to 4/fluorine is the most electronegative element
States if chemical elements are listed in order of increasing atomic number, many of their properties go thru cyclical changes/elements of similar properties recurring at intervals
Chemistry model used to predict the geometry of individual molecules from the number of electron pairs surrounding their central atoms/developed by Gillespie & Nyholm/
Measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract pairs of electrons in the context of a chemical bond/increases from left to right/decreases from top to bottom
Atom or molecule with a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons

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