Science Quiz / HCHS Genetic Engineering Techniques

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Can you name the genetic engineering techniques?

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DescriptionTechniqueUses
Molecular bio technique used to amplify single copy of a piece of DNA generating thousands-millions of copies of a particular sequence/developed in 1983 by Mullis (won 1993 Nobel)Cheap/used to monitor genetic diseases, ID criminals, paternity testing, DNA cloning for sequencing
Microbiology technique in which an E-field is applied to cells to increase permeability of cell membrane, allowing chemicals, drugs, or DNA to be introduced into cellUsed to transform bacteria, yeast, or plant protoplasts by introducing new coding DNA/highly efficient for the introduction of foreign genes into tissue culture cells, especially mammalian cells (i.e. creation of knockout mice)
Pluripotent stem cells that can be generated directly from adult cells/pioneered by Yamanaka's lab in Kyoto (won 2012 Noble Prize along w/Gurdon)Potential uses in regenerative medicine/not controversial & can be made in patient-matched manner
Gene introduced into a cell, especially a bacterium or to cells in culture, that confers a trait suitable for artificial selection/can have positive or negative effects on hostUsed in microbiology, molecular bio, & genetic engineering to indicate the success of a transfection or other procedure introducing foreign DNA into a cell
DNA molecules formed by lab methods of genetic recombination to bring together genetic material from multiple sources creating sequences not otherwise found in genomeUsed in biotechnology, medicine and research/used to create GloFish/methods for diagnosing HIV/herbicide & insect-resistant crops
Technique in which one of an organism's genes is made inoperativeUsed in learning about a gene that has been sequenced, but which has an unknown or incompletely known function
Technique used to introduce instertional mutations across mammalian genomes/preformed w/namesake vectors consisting of promotorless reporter and/or selectable genetic markerAdvantageous in mammalian cells with complex genomic organization, including large introns & small exons, b/c gene desired can be identified from mRNA sequence
Artificial restriction enzymes generated by fusing a zinc finger DNA-binding domain to a DNA-cleavage domain/can be engineered to target DNA sequences with complex genomesUsed to manipulate genomes in many plants & animals/can disable dominant mutations by producing double-strand breaks in mutant allele/also used to edit alleles & in gene therapy
First tool used to deliberately mutate plants (1927)Between 1927 and 2007, more than 2,540 genetically mutated plant varieties had been produced using this technique
Gram-positive, soil-dwelling bacterium first discovered in 1901 by Japanese biologist Shigetane (was killing silkworms)/commonly used as a biological pesticideUsed as insecticides, and more recently to genetically modify crops using Bt genes, such as Bt corn
DescriptionTechniqueUses
Technique involving 1-for-1 'targeted' substitution of DNA sequence information with a wild-type copy in a genetic locus or insertion of sequence information not found w/in locusUsed for the creation of disease models/study of regulatory machinery (e.g. promoters)
Any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniquesSource of medicines and genetically modified foods and are widely used in scientific research and to produce other goods
Heat stable DNA polymerase named after the thermophilic bacterium from which it was originally isolated by Chien et al. in 1976Employed in PCR technique to enzymatically assemble new DNA strand from nucleotides
Restriction enzymes engineered to cut specific sequences of DNA at specific locations/fuses transcription activator-like effector DNA-binding domain to DNA cleavage domainApplications include food crop modification, production of biofuels, engineered human stem cells, & creation of knockout & knockin organisms
Segments of prokaryotic DNA containing short repetitions of base sequences/namesake gene editing system uses short segments of palindromic spacer DNA to cut DNA at specific pointPotential applications include altering the germline of humans, animals, & food crops/uses Cas9 or Cpf1 enzymes
Enzyme that cuts DNA at or near specific recognition nucleotide sequences known as restriction sitesUsed for DNA modification in laboratories/vital tool in molecular cloning
Technique that uses homologous recombination to change an endogenous geneUsed to delete a gene, remove exons, add a gene, and introduce point mutations
Small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independentlyArtificially constructed ones may be used as vectors in genetic engineering
Endodeoxyribonucleases characterized by a large recognition site (12-40 base pairs)/considered most specific naturally occurring restriction enzymes/'molecular DNA scissors'Used to replace, eliminate or modify sequences in a highly targeted way/used for bacterial, plant or animal genome types
Pluripotent stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst/requires destruction of blastocystPotential uses in gene therapy/very controversial b/c of the death of the embryo

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