HCHS Famous Scientists (Extreme)

Can you name the famous scientists?

Forced Order Answers have to be entered in order
1796-1832/French engineer & physicist/called 'father of thermodynamics'/wrote Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire (used by Clausius & Kelvin to get 2nd Law
French chemist w/namesake law relating volumes of gases/determined composition of water/discovered Boron
1914-2000/Austrian-American female film star/developed radio guidance system for torpedos using frequency-hopping spread spectrum technology/incorporated into current Bluetooth
1859-1927/Swedish chemist/founder of physical chemistry/wrote Worlds in the Making/related CO2 to increased surface temps/namesake Eq for temp dependence of reaction rates
1835-1910/Italian astronomer/telescopic observations of Mars/wrote Life on Mars/proved Leonid metero shower coincided w/Tempel-Tuttle comet
1822-95/French microbiologist & chemist/created 1st vaccines for rabies & anthrax/namesake process for bacterial decontamination of milk/disproved spontaneous generation
1894-1966/Belgian Catholic priest & physicist/proposed Big Bang Theory/derived Hubble's Law & estimated Hubble's constant 2 yrs before Hubble
Brit biologist & paleontologist/coined word 'dinosaur'/disagreed w/Darwin on natural selection/expert on interpreting fossils
Austrian-Swiss physicist/was nominated by Einstein & won a Nobel Prize for his exclusion principle/began spin theory
1857-94/German physicist/1st proved existence of electromagnetic waves predicted by Maxwell/worked w/radio waves/discovered photoelectric effectunit of frequency
1777-1857/Danish physicist & chemist/discovered electric currents create magnetic fields/namesake law for this/namesake unit in CGS system/friend of Hans Christian Andersen
1821-94/German physicist & physician/did work on vision/did early work on energy, heat death of universe, acoustics/taught Hertz
1903-72/Brit paleoanthropologist/worked in Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania/fostered primate research by Goodall, Fossey, & Galdikas
1868-1934/German chemist/'father of chemical warfare' weaponized Cl gas in WW1 (2nd Battle of Ypres)/won Nobel in Chemistry for namesake process for synthsizing ammonia
1852-1908/French physicist/1st person to discover radioactivity/won 1st Nobel in physics/namesake SI unit for radioactivity
British biochemist/won 1952 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the invention of partition chromatography with Archer Martin
Did research into color blindness/wrote Meteorological Observations and Essays (1793)/credited with developing modern atomic theory
Destroyed the theory of 'vitalism' or 'vital force' by synthesizing an organic compound (urea) from inorganic material (ammonium cyanate)/mentored by Berzelius
Early Swedish chemist created chemical abbreviations, discovered Si, Se, Th, Ce/coined protein, polymer, isomer, catalysis, allotrope
Discovered the law of conservation of mass/the 'father of modern chemistry'/Elementary Treatise of Chemistry included list of known elements before periodic table
American physician-geneticist who led the Human Genome Project/current director of National Institutes of Health/wrote The Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief
The founder of quantum theory, he discovered that electromagnetic energy could only be emitted in discrete packets
Discovered four satellites of Saturn, namesake division of the rings of Saturn, namesake probe was the first to orbit Saturn
2nd father of atomic bomb/worked on Manhattan Project/quoted Bhagavad Gita: 'Now, I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds'/opponent of 2nd Red Scare/security clearance revoked
This Frenchman postulated particle-wave duality
1807-73/Swiss-born US professor of zoology & geology at Harvard/founded Harvard Museum of Comparative Zoology/opposed Darwinian evolution/supported scientific racism
1st inactivated Polio vaccine/trials included 20,000 physicians, 64,000 school personnel, & 1.8 million children/wrote Man Unfolding (1972), Survival of the Wisest (1973)
Irish chemist who wrote The Sceptical Chymist/largely regarded as 1st modern chemist/discovered the law relating the pressure and volume of a gas
Wrote articles on bacteriology, immunology, & chemotherapy/discovered lysozyme/Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945 w/H Florey and EB Chain for discovering penicillin
1935 Nobel Prize in Physics/discovered the neutron in 1932/wrote MAUD report to instigate atomic bomb research/Brit team member for Manhattan project
Described electrons as wave functions instead of point particles; devised a famous cat-related thought experiment
Italian physicist wrote On the Attractive Force of Electric Fire (1769)/was made a count by Napoleon in 1810/invented the voltaic pile, the 1st battery (using copper & zinc)
Italian physicist & astronomer/experimented on falling bodies, tried to determine the speed of light, wrote The Starry Messenger, Discourse on the Tides, Two New Sciences
Namesake law was actually 1st published by Gay-Lussac who credited it an unpublished work by this scientist/discovered the law relating the temperature and volume of a gas
Austrian physicist & philosopher/studied shock waves/influenced positivism & pragmatism/namesake number gives ratio to speed of sound/The Science of Mechanics/Knowledge & Error
Won a Nobel Prize for his research on transuranium elements, ten of which he discovered
Computed orbit for namesake comet/2nd Astronomer Royal of UK/improved diving bell
Scottish physicist who formulated a comprehensive theory of electromagnetism with his namesake equations/wrote A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field
Created the first version of the modern periodic table of elements and used it to predict undiscovered elements
1931-present/Brit mathematician & physicist/developed singularity theorems w/Hawking/won 2020 Nobel in Physics/wrote The Nature of Space & Time w/Hawking
Ancient Greek pre-Socratic philosopher & traveler/mentored by Leucippus whose atomic theory he elaborated in greater detail
1901 Nobel Prize in Physics for discovery of X-rays/element 111 is named for him
The Wizard of Menlo Park/invented phonograph, motion picture camera, incandescent lightbulb/supported DC in current wars
1904-68/Russian-American cosmologist/invented liquid drop model/explained alpha decay by quantum tunneling/worked on Big Bang/wrote One Two Three...Infinity & Mr Tompkins series of
Credited with launching the first liquid-fueled rocket in 1926/wrote A Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes
Serbian American who supported AC current in the current wars/namesake coil/278 patents in 26 countries/SI unit of magnetic flux density
Discovered the relationship between the volume of a gas and the total number of gas particles; the constant number of particles per mole of a substance is named for him
1746-1826/Italian Catholic priest & astronomer/discovered 1st dwarf planet Ceres/established observatory in Palermo, Italy
1847-1922/Scottish inventor/1st practical telephone/founded AT&T in 1885/wife & mother were deaf leading to his experimenting w/hearing devices/supported eugenics
German astronomer/proposed 3 laws of planetary motion/assistant to Tycho Brahe/solved sphere packing problem/wrote Mysterium Cosmographicum (heliocentric theory w/Platonic Solids
1843-1926/Italian biologist/worked on central nervous system & kidneys/discovered namesake apparatus in cell & helped Laveran prove Plasmodium as cause of malaria
Only American to win the Nobel Prize in Physics twice/one for inventing transistor/other for BCS theory (superconductivity)
Discovered the electron using cathode rays; devised the plum pudding model of the atom
Work on nature of heat & mechanical work led to 1st Law of Thermo/Namesake 1st law related current through resistor to heat dissipated/was a brewer/SI unit of energy
Brit Renaissance scientist called 'Father of Empiricism'/developed scientific method/wrote Novum Organum, The New Atlantis, & Valerius Terminus
1855-1916/US astronomer & businessman/fueled speculation about canals on Mars/founded namesake observatory in Flagstaff, AZ/led effort to discover Pluto
Top experimentalist/discovered benzene, electromagnetic induction, diamagnetism, electrolysis/namesake cage/SI unit of capacitance
British chemist used electrolysis to separate compounds isolating Na, K, Mg, B, Ba & I/discovered Cl/mentored Faraday/created mining lamp
1st American woman in space (1978)/youngest American astronaut/PhD in physics from Stanford/investigated Challenger & Columbia shuttle disasters
1879-1981/US female mathematician & astronomer/lead computer whose work at Lowell Observatory helped find Pluto
Won 1909 Noble Prize in Physics for work in wireless telegraphy/pioneered work in long-distance radio transmission
American cytogeneticist/won 1983 Nobel Prize for Physiology/Medicine for work with maize chromosomes
Element 104 is named for him/Nobel for Chemistry in 1908/distinguished/named alpha & beta radiation/discovered the nucleus & proton through his gold foil experiment
Brit theoretical physicist at Cambridge/wrote A Brief History of Time & On the Shoulders of Giants/worked w/Penrose on black holes/died 2018/namesake radiation
German winner of 1905 Nobel for Medicine/founded bacteriology/namesake Postulates-4 principles linking microorganisms to disease/identified cause of tuberculosis, cholera, anthrax
French zoologist whose evolutionary theory said parents could pass on traits acquired through use or disuse during their lifetime
1578-1657/Brit doctor/1st of understand circlulation of blood in humans/physician to King Charles I/much of his work was destroyed by English Civil War & Great Fire of London
Determined the charge of the electron through his oil drop experiment
Caltech physicist/namesake Lectures on Physics/group leader at Los Alamos (Manhattan Proj)/There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom/The Principle of Least Action in Quantum Mechanics
1791-1872/US inventor & painter/invented single-wire telegraphy/developed namesake code for telegraphy
1965 Nobel in Physics/famous particle physics diagrams/quantum electrodynamics (QED)/on Rogers commission for Challenger disaster/pioneered quantum computing & nanotechnology/
1882-1944/Brit astronomer/known for May 1919 eclipse that confirmed general relativity/namesake limit is limit to luminosity of stars
Geneticist who connected chromosomes to heredity/worked w/fruit flies/Fly Room at Columbia U/Nobel Prize 1933/from KY
Brit physician (1813-1858)/leader in adoption of anesthesia & medical hygiene/Father of Modern Epidemiology b/c of work tracing source of Soho, London cholera outbreak (1854)
1650-1715/English inventor who created the 1st commercially use steam powered device/pump used to drain mines/made public water supply practical
Opponent of Jewish persecution by Nazis, this German won a Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1944 for the discovery of nuclear fission/often called the 'Father of Nuclear Chemistry'
Devised quantum theory's uncertainty principle
1906-97/US astronomer/discovered Pluto in 1930 at Lowell Observatory/discovered many asteroids/his ashes were placed in New Horizons spacecraft
Did considerable surveying work for rebuilding of London after Great Fire/namesake law for linear springs, worked in astronomy & microscopy, discovered cells, disliked Newton
American biochemist, geneticist, & entrepreneur/one of the first to sequence human genome, first to transfect a cell with a synthetic genome/founded Celera Genomics
Austrian physicist & philosopher/developed statistical mechanics/Prof & later president of University of Graz/didn't get along w/Mach, equation for entropy is on his gravestone
Invented lightning rod, proposed concept of positive/negative charges for electricity
Swedish botanist, zoologist, & physician/created binomial nomenclature/Father of Modern Taxonomy/wrote Systema Naturae
Brit who made great discoveries after leaving Cambridge during a plague outbreak/derived Kepler's Laws mathematically/wrote Principia Mathematica & Opticks (had a color wheel)
Danish astronomer & alchemist/wrote Introduction to the New Astronomy & On the New Star/known for his collection of accurate & comprehensive astronomical data
Though she discovered nuclear fission alongside another person in this quiz, she was overlooked by the Nobel committee for purely personal reasons
Theorized that electrons circle the nucleus in discrete orbits; later developed the electron shell model and used it to explain periodicity
Worked with Bunsen to discover cesium and rubidium/formulated laws bearing his name in thermochemistry and electrical circuits/coined term 'black body' radiation
His work included early telescopic studies of the rings of Saturn and the discovery of its moon Titan, invented pendulum clock
1839-1903/Yale prof/invented vector calculus/created & coined phrase 'statistical mechanics' w/Maxwell & Boltzmann/1st US doctorate in engineering
Famous for her research on radioactivity for which she won Nobel prizes in physics and chemistry
Perhaps the most famous scientist of all time, many remember his equation, E=mc^2. However, he won his Nobel Prize for his work on the photoelectric effect.
1852-1919/German chemist/won 1902 Nobel Prize/discovered namesake esterification/developed namesake projection/hypothesized lock & key mechanism of enzymes
Greek head librarian at Alexandria/measured circumference of earth by measuring the distance from Syene to Alexandria/invented study of geography/namesake prime number sieve
Best known for contributions on extraterrestrial life, did demonstration on the production of amino acids in space, wrote Cosmos
Dutch biologist who discovered photosynthesis/also discovered plants have cellular respiration/vaccinated Habsburg's against smallpox/physician to Empress Maria Theresa
Duo which proposed the evolutionary theory of Punctuated Equilibrium in 1972/one was Harvard biologist & other was paleontologist
'Father of Immunology'/Pioneer of 1st vaccine (for smallpox) by proving that cowpox pus could inoculate people against smallpox
Ranked as 1 of the top 3 mathematicians/native of Syracuse opposed Romans with terrifying machines/defined law of buoyancy//wrote Sand Reckoner & Quadrature of the Parabola
Remembered as one of the two fathers of the atomic bomb for his work on the Manhattan Project, he created the first nuclear reactor to initiate a self-sustained chain reaction
British mathematician cracked German Enigma machine at Bletchley Park during WWII/created computer language/'Father of Computer Science' & artificial intelligence/namesake machine
1514-64/Flemish-Belgian physician/1st textbook of human anatomy (Fabrica)/dissected human cadavers/destroyed Galen's theory of humors
Persian Astronomer/crater and minor planet named for him/wrote Book of Fixed Stars in 964/identified Large Magellanic Cloud/made earliest recorded observation of Andromeda Galaxy
Brit who worked at the Royal Mint/called calculus 'fluxions'/binomial theorem, reflecting telescope, wrote Hypothesis of Light, formulated laws of motion and univ gravitation
German physicist/mathematician who 1st stated both the 1st & 2nd Laws of Thermodynamics in On the Moving Force of Heat (1850)/introduced concept of entropy
French physicist developed namesake law to calculate the force between 2 static charges/SI unit for charge
1907-64/US female marine biologist/wrote Silent Spring, The Sea Around Us, Under the Sea Wind/got DDT banned/inspired movement to create EPA
Polish astronomer who wrote On the Revolutions of the Celestial Sphere which espoused his heliocentric theory/formulated a version of Gresham's law in 1519
French oceanographer known for educational programs on pollution and the ocean/co-inventor of the Aqua Lung
Discovered hydrogen (flammable air)/weighed the earth and determined universal gravitational constant, G, using a torsion balance
1754-1826/French chemist/discovered Law of Definite Proportions (or Constant Composition) in 1779/also called __?__'s Law
1769-1832/French naturalist/called 'founding father of paleontology'/proponent of extinction by castastrophism/wrote The Animal Kingdom/identified Mastedon/named pterisaur
1933-present/US physicist-astronomer/discovered cosmic microwave background radiation w/Robert Wilson/Nobel in Physics in 1978
French physicist was early founder of electomagnetism/taught at l'Ecole Polytechnique/SI unit for current
American chemist-peace activist after WW2/Chem Nobel (1954)/Peace Nobel (1962)/namesake electronegativity scale/a founder of quantum chem & molec bio/thought DNA was triple helix
Meteorologist who led expeditions to Greenland/advanced theory of continental drift in 1912 which was controversial until the 1950's
Brit proposed theory of evolution by natural selection/wrote On the Origin of Species (1859), The Descent of Man, The Voyage of the Beagle/studied finch beaks in Galapagos Islands/
Arab philosopher (965-1040AD) known as father of experimental physics, modern optics, & scientific methodology/regarded as 1st theoretical physicist & 1st to use scientific method
1777-1855/German mathematician/namesake of 2 laws of electromagnetism (Maxwell's Equations)/worked w/Weber/discovered Kirchhoff's rules
Female Brit X-ray crystallographer whose X-ray diffraction work led to discovery of double helix DNA/work was shown to Crick w/out permission/not credited w/discovery at the time
1726-97/Scto geologist/called 'father of modern geology'/argued earth's history could be discovered from rocks/earliest proponent of uniformitarianism
The 'God particle,' the 'most sought-after particle in modern physics,' is named after this man
German physicist who w/Gauss invented electromagnetic telegraph/1st to use c for speed of light/SI unit of magnetic flux
1738-1822/Brit-German astronomer/discovered Uranus (1781)/catalogued 800 double stars & 2500 nebulae/1st to describe spiral structure of Milky Way/discovered infrared radiation
1896-1986/US physicist-chemist/developed molecular orbital theory/developed his own scale for electronegativity in 1934/won 1966 Nobel for Chem
American Astronomer, most notable as a pioneer of he search for extraterrestrial life including the founding of SETI, the first attempt to detect them in 1960 under project OZMA
1811-99/German chemist/discovered caesium & rubidium w/Kirchhoff/emission spectra of heated elements/his lab assistant created namesake burner/pioneer of photochemistry
1803-53/Austrian physicist/postulated namesake effect relating wave frequency to speed of source & observer/used to explain binary star color/namesake weather radar
1797-1875/Scot geologist/wrote Principles of Geology/supported uniformitarianism/influenced Darwin's thinking
1825-95/Brit biologist-anthropologist/Darwin's Bulldog/coined term 'agnosticism'/pushed for scientific education/said birds evolved from dinosaurs
Scot who greatly enhanced the effectiveness of the steam engine by adding a separate condenser and adapting it for rotary motion/developed concept of horsepower/SI unit of power
Nazi rocket scientist/developed V-2 for Nazis and Saturn V for NASA
American physicist who entered Yale at 15/1969 Nobel Prize for Physics for elementary particle research/named quarks
18th-century Brit theologian, chemist, & political theorist/credited w/discovery of oxygen (along w/Scheele & Lavoisier) which he called 'dephlogisticated air' & soda water
1964-present/US female biochemist/pioneered CRISPR/won 2020 Nobel in Chemistry/UC Berkeley prof
1768-1830/French physicist/went w/Napoleon to Egypt/namesake series for heat flow/discovered greenhouse effect/namesake law of conduction/wrote The Analytic Theory of Heat
1730-1817/French astronomer/cataloged 110 nebulae & star clusters
1889-1953/US astronomer/proved existence of many galaxies beyond Milky Way/namesake law relates galaxy velocity to distance from earth/namesake telescope was deployed in 1990
US paleoanthropologist/discovered Lucy (hominin australopithicene) in Afar Triangle region of Hadar, Ethiopia
First suggested the existence of isotopes
1875-1946/UC Berkeley Chem prof/discovered covalent bonds/electron pair/namesake dot diagrams/coined 'photon'/nomnated 41 times but never won Nobel in Chem/taught Urey & Seaborg
1837-1923/Dutch physicist best known for his equation of state for liquids and gases, the forces between stable molecules are named for him
American physicist who discovered electromagnetic induction at the same time as Faraday/developed electromagnet, electric relay, & electric doorbell/SI unit of inductance
1st Astronomer Royal of England/catalogued over 3000 stars

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