Science Quiz / HCHS Electricity (Extreme)

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Can you name the terms from electricity?

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Building block of analog circuits/voltage amplifier w/3 terminals used in signal conditioning, filtering or to perform mathematical operations (+, -, integration, differentiation)n
Vector resulting from the cross product of the electric & magnetic field vectors
Foundational to electronics/conductivity inc's w/inc temp/quantum physics explains movement of electrons & holes inside lattice/enhanced by 'doping'/used in transistors/Si,Ga,Ge
Transformer where primary winding has fewer turns than secondary winding
Effective resistance of an electric circuit or component to alternating current/complex ratio of voltage to current in AC/has both magnitude & phase
Insulating material placed between the plates of a capacitor to increase its capacitance
Enclosure formed by conductive material or mesh of such material that blocks external E-fields and doesn't allow current to flow inside/a car struck by lightning is an example
Instrument that measures electrical potential difference between 2 points in circuit/do not need to break circuit to use/uses high resistance
Minimum voltage that causes a portion of an insulator to become electrically conductive/for diodes it's the min voltage to make it conduct in reverse
Production of voltage difference across a conductor, transverse to electric current in conductor & magnetic field perpendicular to the current
Named for Erasmus of Formia/weather phenomenon where coronal discharge is created on pointed object in an E-field in the atmosphere/seen on masts of wooden ships in thunderstorms
Type of motor that is responsible for moving or controlling a mechanism or system
Electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials in response to applied mechanical stress/discovered in 1880 by Jacques & Pierre Curie/used in guitar pickups & lighters
3-terminal resistor w/sliding or rotating contact (wiper) that forms an adjustable voltage divider
Electrical generator that produces direct current with the use of a commutator
Instrument used to measure the current in a circuit/can be mechanical or electrical/uses low resistance/must break circuit to insert
Machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy
Device that converts a signal in one form of energy to another form of energy
Wet-chemical cell that produces a highly stable voltage suitable as a laboratory standard for calibration of voltmeters
Originally know as a condenser/2-terminal component used to store electrical energy/have 2 plates w/dielectric (insulator) in between
Circuit type composed of capacitors and inductors/energy oscillates from capacitor to inductor and back
Instrument that combines several measurement functions in one unit/normally measures voltage, current, & resistance
2-terminal elect. component w/asymmetric conductance/low resistance in 1 direction, high in other/semiconductor & vacuum tube forms/converts AC to DC by rectification
Property of material that varies with change in temperature that measures its ability to conduct electric current/reciprocal of resistivity
Usually a bluish glow near pointed conductors w/high voltage/electrical discharge by ionizing fluid surrounding a conductor/less than breakdown voltage
Materials that should conduct electricity under conventional band theories but are insulators when measured (particularly at low temperatures) due to electron-electron interactions
Law of physics that calculates the force between two charged particles
States that current through conductor between two points is directly proportional to potential difference across two points/ Current equals potential difference over resistanance
Branching electric discharges that sometimes appear on surface or in interior of insulating materials/due to high voltage/often burned into skin of people struck by lightning
Flow of electric charge that periodically reverses direction/Tesla favored this form in War of Currents
Passive two-terminal electrical component that reduces current flow and voltage within a circuit/converts electrical energy to heat
Electronic device or circuitry that changes direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC)
Early form of capacitor consisting of a glass jar with layers of metal foil on the outside and inside/invented by von Kleist & Musschenbroek (1745)/named for Dutch city
Electrical device that converts alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC)
Condensed matter state responsible for superconductivity/responsible for superfluidity of helium-3/discovered by namesake (1956)/pairing of electrons (any fermions) at low temp
Amount of electric pot. energy a point charge would have if located at a given point in space/equal to work done by E-field to move 1 unit of positive charge from infinity to point
Electrical circuit consisting of a resistor, an inductor, and a capacitor, connected in series or in parallel/resistor causes damping in oscillations
Semiconductor device used to amplify & switch electronic signals & power/at least 3 terminals for connection to circuit/developed in Brattain, Shockley, & Bardeen in 1947
Used in levitation demos/zero resistance & expulsion of B-field/discovered by Onnes/subject of BCS theory/usually at very low temps/some ceramic materials at much higher
Atmospheric phenomenon in Venezuela/occurs only over mouth of namesake River where it empties into Lake Maracaibo/largest single generator of tropospheric ozone
Flow of electric charge produced by batteries, thermocouples, solar cells, and dynamo-type machines that is unidirectional/favored by Edison in War of Currents
Coined by Ampere/coil of wire wrapped into a tightly packed helix/produces a uniform magnetic field when an electric current is passed through it/used as eletromagnet or inductor
Also known as quadratic mean/method used to calculate effective value of AC current that delivers same power as DC current & eff. AC voltage = peak voltage div by sqrt(2)
Transfers energy between 2 or more circuits by electromagnetic induction/used to increase or decrease voltage of an alternating current
Electrical circuit used to measure unknown electrical resistance by balancing 2 legs of a bridge circuit w/1 unknown component/invented by Christie in 1833/used for soil analysis
Type of very sensitive ammeter/only usable for small currents/always a mechanical device/add a resistor in series to convert into voltmeter
Passive two-terminal electrical component which resists changes in electric current passing through it/formed from coiled wire/stores & releases energy by induction
Transformer where primary winding has more turns than secondary winding
Instrument used to measure unknown electrical resistors below 1 ohm/called a Thomson Bridge in some countries
Device that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy for use in an external circuit
Expulsion of magnetic field from superconductor during transition to superconducting state/happens when cooled/important paradigm for Higgs mechanism
Region in space where every point has the same potential/can be lines or surfaces/lines look like a topographical map/always perpendicular to E-field lines
Effect where charge builds up on a object because of friction (Ex. amber rubbed with wool/glass rubbed w/silk/rubber rubbed w/fur)
2-terminal resistor w/sliding or rotating contact (wiper) that forms an adjustable voltage divider/most common way to vary resistance in circuit/coined by Wheatstone in 1845
Instrument that measures electrical resistance/form circuit w/in themselves/don't hook into existing circuit/sends constant I thru resistance, measures V to calculate R
Circuit type with a voltage source, resistors, & capacitors
Property of material that varies with change in temperature that measures how strongly it opposes flow of electric current/reciprocal of conductivity
One or more electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy

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