Science Quiz / HCHS Electricity (Extreme)

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QUIZ: Can you name the terms from electricity?

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Electronic device or circuitry that changes direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC)
Insulating material placed between the plates of a capacitor to increase its capacitance
Electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials in response to applied mechanical stress/discovered in 1880 by Jacques & Pierre Curie/used in guitar pickups & lighters
Law of physics that calculates the force between two charged particles
Passive two-terminal electrical component which resists changes in electric current passing through it/formed from coiled wire/stores & releases energy by induction
Region in space where every point has the same potential/can be lines or surfaces/lines look like a topographical map/always perpendicular to E-field lines
Enclosure formed by conductive material or mesh of such material that blocks external E-fields and doesn't allow current to flow inside/a car struck by lightning is an example
One or more electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy
Transformer where primary winding has more turns than secondary winding
Branching electric discharges that sometimes appear on surface or in interior of insulating materials/due to high voltage/often burned into skin of people struck by lightning
Named for Erasmus of Formia/weather phenomenon where coronal discharge is created on pointed object in an E-field in the atmosphere/seen on masts of wooden ships in thunderstorms
Used in levitation demos/zero resistance & expulsion of B-field/discovered by Onnes/subject of BCS theory/usually at very low temps/some ceramic materials at much higher
2-terminal elect. component w/asymmetric conductance/low resistance in 1 direction, high in other/semiconductor & vacuum tube forms/converts AC to DC by rectification
Coined by Ampere/coil of wire wrapped into a tightly packed helix/produces a uniform magnetic field when an electric current is passed through it/used as eletromagnet or inductor
Property of material that varies with change in temperature that measures its ability to conduct electric current/reciprocal of resistivity
Electrical device that converts alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC)
Amount of electric pot. energy a point charge would have if located at a given point in space/equal to work done by E-field to move 1 unit of positive charge from infinity to point
Device that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy for use in an external circuit
Expulsion of magnetic field from superconductor during transition to superconducting state/happens when cooled/important paradigm for Higgs mechanism
Flow of electric charge that periodically reverses direction/Tesla favored this form in War of Currents
Passive two-terminal electrical component that reduces current flow and voltage within a circuit/converts electrical energy to heat
Circuit type with a voltage source, resistors, & capacitors
Machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy
Early form of capacitor consisting of a glass jar with layers of metal foil on the outside and inside/invented by von Kleist & Musschenbroek (1745)/named for Dutch city
Effect where charge builds up on a object because of friction (Ex. amber rubbed with wool/glass rubbed w/silk/rubber rubbed w/fur)
Electrical circuit consisting of a resistor, an inductor, and a capacitor, connected in series or in parallel/resistor causes damping in oscillations
Minimum voltage that causes a portion of an insulator to become electrically conductive/for diodes it's the min voltage to make it conduct in reverse
Materials that should conduct electricity under conventional band theories but are insulators when measured (particularly at low temperatures) due to electron-electron interactions
Transfers energy between 2 or more circuits by electromagnetic induction/used to increase or decrease voltage of an alternating current
Also known as quadratic mean/method used to calculate effective value of AC current that delivers same power as DC current & eff. AC voltage = peak voltage div by sqrt(2)
Production of voltage difference across a conductor, transverse to electric current in conductor & magnetic field perpendicular to the current
Condensed matter state responsible for superconductivity/responsible for superfluidity of helium-3/discovered by namesake (1956)/pairing of electrons (any fermions) at low temp
Instrument that measures electrical resistance/form circuit w/in themselves/don't hook into existing circuit/sends constant I thru resistance, measures V to calculate R
Semiconductor device used to amplify & switch electronic signals & power/at least 3 terminals for connection to circuit/developed in Brattain, Shockley, & Bardeen in 1947
Atmospheric phenomenon in Venezuela/occurs only over mouth of namesake River where it empties into Lake Maracaibo/largest single generator of tropospheric ozone
Originally know as a condenser/2-terminal component used to store electrical energy/have 2 plates w/dielectric (insulator) in between
Flow of electric charge produced by batteries, thermocouples, solar cells, and dynamo-type machines that is unidirectional/favored by Edison in War of Currents
Type of motor that is responsible for moving or controlling a mechanism or system
Property of material that varies with change in temperature that measures how strongly it opposes flow of electric current/reciprocal of conductivity
Instrument used to measure the current in a circuit/can be mechanical or electrical/uses low resistance/must break circuit to insert
Foundational to electronics/conductivity inc's w/inc temp/quantum physics explains movement of electrons & holes inside lattice/enhanced by 'doping'/used in transistors/Si,Ga,Ge
Instrument that combines several measurement functions in one unit/normally measures voltage, current, & resistance
Electrical circuit used to measure unknown electrical resistance by balancing 2 legs of a bridge circuit w/1 unknown component/invented by Christie in 1833/used for soil analysis
2-terminal resistor w/sliding or rotating contact (wiper) that forms an adjustable voltage divider/most common way to vary resistance in circuit/coined by Wheatstone in 1845
Transformer where primary winding has fewer turns than secondary winding
3-terminal resistor w/sliding or rotating contact (wiper) that forms an adjustable voltage divider
Building block of analog circuits/voltage amplifier w/3 terminals used in signal conditioning, filtering or to perform mathematical operations (+, -, integration, differentiation)n
Wet-chemical cell that produces a highly stable voltage suitable as a laboratory standard for calibration of voltmeters
States that current through conductor between two points is directly proportional to potential difference across two points/ Current equals potential difference over resistanance
Vector resulting from the cross product of the electric & magnetic field vectors
Type of very sensitive ammeter/only usable for small currents/always a mechanical device/add a resistor in series to convert into voltmeter
Usually a bluish glow near pointed conductors w/high voltage/electrical discharge by ionizing fluid surrounding a conductor/less than breakdown voltage
Electrical generator that produces direct current with the use of a commutator
Device that converts a signal in one form of energy to another form of energy
Effective resistance of an electric circuit or component to alternating current/complex ratio of voltage to current in AC/has both magnitude & phase
Circuit type composed of capacitors and inductors/energy oscillates from capacitor to inductor and back
Instrument used to measure unknown electrical resistors below 1 ohm/called a Thomson Bridge in some countries
Instrument that measures electrical potential difference between 2 points in circuit/do not need to break circuit to use/uses high resistance

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