History Quiz / HCHS Architectural Terms (Extreme)

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Can you name the architectural terms?

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Ornamental molding around the wall of a room just below the ceiling
Wide central section part of an entablature (may be plain in Ionic or Doric order) or decorated with bas-relief/part of an entablature between the architrave and the cornice
Lintel or beam that rests on the capitals of the columns/also called an epistyle
Top step of the crepidoma, the stepped platform on which colonnades of temple columns are placed
Most ornate type of column/slender fluting w/elaborate capitals decorated with acanthus leaves and scrolls/last developed of 3 principle classical orders
Classical column w/slender fluted pillars w/large base & 2 opposed volutes in echinus of capital/24 flutes
Most squat of 3 classic columns/stood directly on pavement w/out a base/20 flutes/smooth capital flared to square abacus at architrave/alternating triglyphs & metopes
Order of column described by Serlio as 'solidest and least ornate'/not one of the 3 classical orders
Small tower that projects vertically from the wall of a building such as a medieval castle
Antechamber (entrance/lobby area) or large porch in a modern church/on western entrance in early churches
Porch leading to entrance of building, or extended as a colonnade, with a roof structure over a walkway, supported by columns or enclosed by walls/widely used in Ancient Greece
Inner chamber of a temple in classical architecture, or a shop facing the street in domestic Roman architecture/Latin for 'small chamber'/Greek term is 'naos' literally 'temple'
Buttress type not in contact with the wall/most strongly associated with Gothic church architecture
Central part of church/accommodated congregation/in traditional Western churches is rectangular, separated from chancel by a step or rail & from adjacent aisles by pillars
Circular opening in the centre of a dome or in a wall/used by Romans in the Pantheon
Shallow grooves running vertically along a surface, especially on a column shaft
Spiral, scroll-like ornament that forms the basis of the Ionic order, found in the capital of the Ionic column
Triangular upper part of the front of a building in classical style, typically surmounting a portico of columns
Sculpted female figure serving as an architectural support taking the place of a column or a pillar supporting an entablature on her head
Part of a wall that encloses the end of a pitched roof
Small dome, especially a small dome on a drum on top of a larger dome, adorning a roof or ceiling
Low protective wall along the edge of a roof, bridge, or balcony
Exedra or an apse that has been reduced in size, retaining the half-dome heading usual for an apse
Vertically channeled tablets of Doric frieze with angular channels in them/2 perfect and 1 divided, the 2 chamfered angles or hemiglyphs being reckoned as one
Atrium, courtyard, or parvise in front of a basilica that is surrounded by arcades or colonnades, often containing a fountain, and is surrounded by trees
Covered walkway or portico, commonly for public use in Ancient Greece/open at entrance w/columns (usually Doric) lining the side of the building
High section of wall that contains windows above eye level/admitted light & fresh air/upper level of Roman basilica or nave of Romanesque or Gothic church
Watercourse constructed to convey water used by Ancient Greeks, Egyptians, & Romans
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Series of sunken panels in the shape of a square, rectangle, or octagon in a ceiling, soffit or vault
Story or low wall above the cornice of a classical façade
Settlement, especially a citadel, built upon an area of elevated ground—frequently a hill with precipitous sides, chosen for purposes of defense/often became nuclei of large city
Spherical or partial-spherical shell structure or lattice shell based on a network of great circles on the surface of a sphere/intersect to form triangular elements
dome whose bulbous shape resembles a vegetable/often larger in diameter than the drum upon which they sit, and their height usually exceeds their width/tapers smoothly to a point
Large open space located within a building/widely used in Ancient Roman dwellings, providing light and ventilation to the interior
Long projecting beam or girder fixed at only one end, used chiefly in bridge construction
Rectangular column, especially one projecting from a wall/give the appearance of a supporting column and to articulate an extent of wall, with only an ornamental function
Structure built against or projecting from a wall which serves to support or reinforce the wall
Stone or wooden slab, generally taller than it is wide, erected as a monument, very often for funerary or commemorative purposes
Rear room of an ancient Greek temple or to the inner shrine, also called the adyton/used as treasury in Athenian Acropolis
Curve (often used in moulding), shaped somewhat like an S, consisting of two arcs that curve in opposite senses, so that the ends are parallel
Squared stone blocks much greater in height than depth that are usually built into the lower portion of a wall/'stand upright' instead of lying flat
Support sculpted in the form of a man, which may take the place of a column, a pier or a pilaster
Type of free-standing ancient Greek sculpture of the Archaic period depicting female figures, always of a young age
Rectangular stepped tower, sometimes surmounted by temple/first attested in the late 3rd millennium BC/probably recounted in the biblical story of the Tower of Babel
Upright stone slab or column typically bearing a commemorative inscription or relief design, often serving as a gravestone
Angled (oblique) line or surface particularly which cuts off a corner/bay windows have this type of side
Form of bay window which projects from the main wall of a building but does not reach to the ground/often seen in Arab architecture
Window or part of a window set on a hinge so that it opens like a door
Arched form used to provide a space with a ceiling or roof/parts exert lateral thrust that requires a counter resistance
Platform on which the superstructure of the building is erected/usually has three levels which decrease in size incrementally forming a series of steps along sides of building
Mixed order, combining the volutes of the Ionic order capital with the acanthus leaves of the Corinthian order
Rectangular recessed spaces between the triglyphs on a Doric frieze
Early order of classical architecture/column has strong similarity to Ionic but differs in the capital, where a palmette is placed between the two volutes
Slight convex curve in the shaft of a column, introduced to correct the visual illusion of concavity produced by a straight shaft
Topmost member of a column (or a pilaster)/mediates between the column and the load thrusting down upon it, broadening the area of the column's supporting surface
Flat slab forming the uppermost member or division of the capital of a column, above the bell
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Sanskrit & Pali term for a Buddhist monastery
Semicircular recess or plinth, often crowned by a semi-dome, which is sometimes set into a building's facade
Large semicircular or polygonal recess in a church, arched or with a domed roof, typically at the eastern end, and usually containing the altar
Lower square slab at the base of a column
Succession of arches, each counter-thrusting the next, supported by columns, piers, or a covered walkway enclosed by a line of such arches on one or both sides
Open space in front of and around a cathedral or church, especially when surrounded by either colonnades or porticoes
Long sequence of columns joined by their entablature, often free-standing, or part of a building
Originally described an open Roman public court building/later a church w/central nave and aisles/later a large important church given special ceremonial rights by the pope
Christian church which contains the seat of a bishop
Free-standing ancient Greek sculptures which first appear in the Archaic period in Greece and represent nude male youths
German term indicating circumstances where an architect is responsible for the design and/or overseeing of the building's totality: shell, accessories, furnishings, and landscape
Academic neoclassical architectural style taught at namesake school in Paris/influential in US (1880-1920)/Columbia, Berkley, MIT, Naval Academy, Carnegie Mellon Universities
Natural or artificial cave that is associated with modern, historic, or prehistoric use by humans/often near water & flooded or liable to flood at high tide
Honeycomb vault/form of ornamented vaulting/geometric subdivision of a squinch, cupola, corbel into many miniature squinches/began in N Africa & Iran in 10th century
Construction filling in the upper angles of a square room so as to form a base to receive an octagonal or spherical dome
Structural piece of stone, wood or metal jutting from a wall to carry a superincumbent weight/a type of bracket
Type of corbel/S-shaped scroll bracket in the classical tradition, with the upper or inner part larger than the lower (as in the first illustration) or outer
Constructive device made of triangular segments of a sphere permitting the placing of a circular dome over a square room or an elliptical dome over a rectangular room
Major horizontal structural element supporting the roof and encircling the entire building/composed of architrave, frieze, & cornice (from bottom to top)
Central space or square in ancient Greek city-states/centre of athletic, artistic, spiritual and political life of the city/literally means 'gathering place' or 'assembly'
Convex molding just below the abacus of a Doric capital
Lowest part of capital/continuation of the shaft but which is set off from it visually by one or more narrow grooves
Cornice found on the inclined tops of a triangular pediment
Ancient Greek and Roman buildings built for music/similar to an ancient Greek theatre but only a quarter of the size and had a roof for acoustic purposes
Posts or pillars on either side of a doorway or entrance of a Greek temple/side walls of the cella (or naos)/also called parastade
Front porch of classical temple w/door to enter cella or naos
Usually a single row, rarely a double one, of columns which enclosed classical temples/surrounded pronaos, cella (naos), opisthodomos, & possibly the adyton
Restricted area within the cella (naos) of Greek or Roman temple/reserved for oracles & priests/priestesses/not for public

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Created Jul 9, 2015ReportNominate
Tags:architecture, description, term

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