Miscellaneous Quiz / Sedative Hyponotic Drugs

Random Miscellaneous Quiz

Can you name the Sedative Hyponotic Drugs?

Quiz not verified by Sporcle

Forced Order
Score 0/131 Timer 20:00
Class effects: Dose dependent decrease in firing rate of critical neurons throughout the brain. GABAergic activation --> sedation, decreased anxiety, and pharmacologic hypnosis
Chlordiazepoxide class
Class SE: Therapeutic doses: persistent drowsiness, residual effects inc. vertigo, n/v, or diarrhea. Paradoxical excitement. Enhancement of porphyrin synthesis (contraindicated in
Drug Use: Anxiety disorders, management of ETOH withdrawal, anesthetic premedication
Drug use: insomnia & anxiety
Drug P-kinetics: intermediate-acting: Peak levels 1-2 hrs (nordiazepam), 1/2 life 2-3 hrs. Prodrug; hydrolyzed to active form in stomach. Active metabolites w/ long t1/2s
Drug P-kinetics: oral, t1/2 2-3 hrs
Class MOA cont.: No effect of the GABA-A channel alone. Will not produce profound anesthesia
Class MOA: Binds to GABA-A channels separate from GABA binding site, allosterically increases the ability of GABA to bind its GABA binding site --> increased frequency of opening o
Phenobarbital class
Drug Use: Barbituate for insomnia
Drug MOA: Competitively inhibits binding of BDZs on the GABA-a receptor at the BDZ binding site (specific to BDZs, does not block barbituates)
Drug P-kinetics: oral, rectal, t1/2 5-10 hrs, converted to trichloroethane (active metabolite)
Class MOA: Dose dependent effects: Low doses--binds to GABA-A channels separate from GABA binding & BDZ binding site & prolongs duration of opening of GABA bound GABA-A channels --
Drug P-kinetics: Short-acting: t1/2 2hrs, most rapidly metabolized benzo. For anesthesia, not active metabolites
Class P-kinetics cont: Most are metabolized to H2O-soluble derivatives in the liver --> excretion in urine. Parent drug T 1/2 does not always effect DOA. Several metabolites are ac
Clorazepate class
Drug SE: OD can cause severe hypotension, resp depression & death
Drug use: anxiety disorders, muscle relaxant
Zolpidem class
Class P-kinetics cont: Cumulative effects at multiple dosing. Hepatic oxidation (except one drug) of groups attached at C5 --> pharmacokinetic or metabolic tolerance: repeated dose
Class P-kinetics: All absorbed well orally (except one which is converted to an active metabolite), in the stomach. IM variable bioavailability.Distribution into & out of (redistri
Drug P-kinetic: Intermediate-acting: Peak levels 2 hrs, 1/2 life 10-24 hrs, no active metabolites
Drug Use: Seizure disorders (second line), daytime sedation
Side effects: Persistent effects during waking hours. Resp: hypnotic doses = similar to resp. during sleep (unless with COPD, OSA, impaired liver function, or child); preanesthetic
Diazepam class
Drug P-kinetics: oral, t1/2 10-20 hrs, redistribution shortens duration
Drug interactions: enhances hepatic metabolism of other drugs like oral anticoagulants
Benzodiazepines safe to use in liver failure pts are those metabolized
Thiopental class
Quazepam class
Drug P-kinetics: Intermediate-acting: Peak levels 2-4 hrs, 1/2 life 10-20 hrs. no active metabolites, non-liver metabolism
Drug P-kinetics: Intermediate-acting: t1/2 18 to 28 hours
Drug SE: acidosis, hepatitis, bleeding gastritis & nephrosis
Ramelteon class
Drug use: DOC for anxiety disorders & agoraphobia
Drugs MOA: Selectively binds to the BZ1 (omega1)-GABA-A channel separate from GABA binding site & increases frequency of opening of GABA bound GABA-A channels resulting in & increa
Drug Use: Insomnia, preop sedation, emergency mgmt of seizures
Drug P-kinetics: IV, Rectal, sodium salt, t1/2 8-10 hrs. Ultra short acting (20 minutes)
Drug P-kinetics: oral, IM, IV, t1/2 15-50 hrs. Long acting (1-2 days)
Drug SE: acute use: epigastric distress, n/v (taste bad). Hangover symptoms. Hepatic damage (chronic use), severe withdrawal syndrome
Drug use: Decreases sleep latency -- induction of sleep, BDZ1Subclass specific. Used in those who have difficulty falling asleep or going back to sleep
Aprobarbital class
Drug P-kinetics: Long-acting: peak levels in 1-2 hrs. 1/2 life 20-60 hrs, active metabolites with long t1/2s; erratic bioavailability from IM injection
Triazolam class
Drug Use: Seizure disorders, SE, daytime sedation
Drug P-kinetics: Liver CYP1A2 & CYP2C9
Drug MOA: antihistamine
Drug P-kinetics: Intermediate-acting: Peak levels 2-3 hrs, 1/2 life10-40, slow oral absorption, no active metabolites, non-liver metabolism
Clinical use: BDZ OD
Drugs effects: decrease in firing rate of specific neurons that contain the BZ1 subtype of the GABA-A channel
Butabarbital sodium class
Drug Use: Anxiety disorders, status epilepticus & seizure disorders including drug induced, skeletal muscle relaxation, anesthetic premedication, ETOH withdrawal
Drug SE: dizziness, n/v, hypotension & facial numbness, Hangover. marked excitement w/ pain. Contraindicated in pts w/ intermittent porphyria
Drug P-kinetics: oral, IM IV, t1/2 10-40 hrs, Na+ salts only for parenteral admin. Short acting (3-8 hours).
Drug Use: Induction and/or maintenance of anesthesia, preop sedation, emergency management of seizures
Drugs interactions: inducers of cyt P450 decrease half life & inhibitors increase half life
Class P-kinetics cont. Excretion - mostly glucuronides in the urine. Factors affecting 'biodisposition' - liver function (increased or decreased microsomal enzymes); pharmacokineti
Alprazolam class
Drug Use: Insomnia & anxiety disorders
Drug P-kinetics: Short-acting: Peak levels 1 hr, 1/2 life 2-3 hrs, rapid onset (most rapid); short DOA
Drug SE: Dizziness, somnolence, fatigue, endocrine changes (↓testosterone, ↑prolactin)
Drug SE: N/V & rash. Idiosyncratic excitement, fever, thrombocytopenia
Class Drug interactions: Severe depression in combo w/ other CNS depressants (like ETOH, opiods, anticonvulsants, phenothiazines, & to a lesser degree antihistamines, antihypertens
Drug P-kinetics: effects may take weeks to establish, extensive first pass, active metabolites, t1/2 2-4 hrs
Lorazepam class
Drug P-kinetics: Short-acting: Peak levels 1-2 hrs, 1/2 life 12-15 hours, rapid oral absorption, no active metabolites
Flurazepam class
Meprobamate class
Drug P-kinetics: oral, t1/2 14-34 hrs, excreted unchanged
Drug MOA: unclear (GABA-a binding)
Drug P-kinetics: oral, t1/2 6-17 hrs
Drugs SE: similar to diazepam but w/ minimal muscle relaxing & anticonvulsant effects as well as less development of tolerance & dependence. Reduced alteration in normal sleep arch
Oxazepam class
Drug SE: Agitation, confusion, dizziness, and nausea, also induce seizure in BDZ dependent pts, abstinence syndrome in BDZ dependent pts.
Flumazenil class
Drug use: Anxiety disorders, seizure disorders, ETOH withdrawal
Drug P-kinetics: t1/2 4-10 hrs, oral (disagreeable taste) or rectal damages tissue, IV, 75% metabolized in liver 25% exhaled
Drug P-kinetics: Long-acting: Peak levels 1-2 h, 1/2 life 40-100 hrs. active metabolites w/ 1/2 lives
Drug effect: Melatonin receptors may be involved in circadian rhythms & sleep-wake cycles.
Eszopiclone class
Drug use: Anxiety disorders, ETOH withdrawal
Class Pharmacodynamics: GABA-A Receptor: pentamer of α, β, and γ subunits. GABA binds at α/β, benzodiazepines bind on γ. Cl- current hyperpolarizing (inhibitory). Sedative hy
Midazolam class
Drug interactions: rifampin (inducer of CYP3A4) may decrease t1/2, inhibitors of CYP3A4 may increase t1/2
Secobarbital class
Drug Use: BDZ for Insomnia
Drug use: sedation
Drug P-kinetics: Long-acting: Peak levels in 2-4 hrs. 1/2 life 15-40 hrs, otherwise similar to diazepam, active metabolites with long t1/2s
Drug use: Preanesthetic & intraoperative med.
Class drug interactions: Additive effects with other sedative-hypnotics (ethanol, many general anesthetics, many drugs to tx insomnia, benzodiazepines, barbituates, opiod analgesic
Zaleplon class
Drug MOA: may act as a partial agonist of the 5-HT 1A (maybe D2) receptor. Metabolite has α-2 activity.
Paraldehyde class
Drug P-kinetics: oral, t1/2 35-50 hrs, redistribution reduces duration
Temazepam class
Drug use: Decreases sleep latency, increases NREM, decreaseds REM (high doses) -- insomnia (efficacy similar to that of hypnotic benzodiazepines), BDZ1Subclass specific. Used to in
Class P-kinetics: Rapid oral absorption (form of Na+ salts). IV: induction of anesthesia & SE). Plasma PRO binding is extensive for both groups. Distributed widely, crosses placent
Drug Use: generalized anxiety disorders (non-acute)
Estazolam class
Drug P-kinetics: oral, t1/2 10-70
Drug MOA: unclear
Class P-kinetics cont.: Bound to plasma proteins (lipophilic molecules more):[CSF] = free drug in plasma. Volume of distribution increase in elderly: decreased water volume + incre
Amobarbital class
Side effects cont: Paradoxical psych effects: disinhibitory reactions, delirium, aggression, violence, garrulousness, anxiety, irritability, paranoia, suicidal ideation, & physiolo
Clonazepam class
Drug P-kinetics Intermediate-acting: Peak levels 1-6 hrs, 1/2 life 10-20 hrs, no active metabolites, non-liver metabolism
Drug Use: Seizure disorders, adjunctive tx in acute mania & certain movement disorders
Drug use: Anxiety disorders, preanesthetic med, seizure disorders, insomnia
Drug Effects: similar to barbituates
Drug P-kinetics: oral, IM, IV, t1/2 15-50 hrs, only Na+ salt for parenteral. Short acting (3-8 hours).
Hydroxyzine class
Drug use: sedation in children
Buspirone class
Drug effect: Reverses effects of BZDs zolpidem, zaleplon, eszopiclone
Drug P-kinetics: oral, IM, IV, rectal, t1/2 15-40 hrs, only sodium salt available. Short acting (3-8 hours).
Drug interactions: inhibitors of CYP 1A2 (ciporfloxacin, fluvoxamine, tacrine, zileuton) & CYP2C9 (fluconazole)
Drug SE: Unlike BDZs it has NO hypnotic, anticonvulsant or muscle relaxant effects. Less psychomotor impairment than diazepam. It may cause tachycardia, palpitations, nervousness,
Class effects: Dose dependent decrease in firing rate of critical neurons throughout the brain. GABAergic activation leads to a succession of effects that include sedation, reduced
Chloral hydrate class
Drug use: insomnia (efficacy similar to that of hypnotic benzodiazepines), BDZ1Subclass specific. Decreases sleep latency and REM -- induces & maintains sleep.
Pentobarbital class
Drug P-kinetics: Long-acting: peak levels 2 hrs, 1/2 life 39 hrs, Active metabolites with long 1/2 life
Ethchlorvynol class
Drug P-kinetics: Short-duration: rapid first pass effect, IV admin. Very short t1/2 0.7-1.3 hrs (fast hepatic clearance). Rapid IV action. Repeated injections often necessary since
Drug MOA: Agonist of melatonin receptors MT1 and MT2 (suprachiasmatic nuclei)
Mephobarbital class
Drug Use: Insomnia, preop sedation
Drug use: delirium tremens in hospitalized pts
Drug use: 'Chronic insomnia. Note: does not interact with GABA receptors. Reduces sleep latency with little effect on sleep architecture. '
Drug Effects: unclear, anxiolytic w/o sedative side effects

You're not logged in!

Compare scores with friends on all Sporcle quizzes.
Sign Up with Email
Log In

You Might Also Like...

Show Comments


Top Quizzes Today

Score Distribution

Your Account Isn't Verified!

In order to create a playlist on Sporcle, you need to verify the email address you used during registration. Go to your Sporcle Settings to finish the process.