Miscellaneous Quiz / bacterial pathogens

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Can you name the bacterial pathogens?

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Tx of klebsiella pneumoniae
Opportunistic gram(-) rods ubiquitous in the environment, transient colonization of the human body transmitted by respiratory secretions and direct contact with fomites
Presentation: fever, HA, malaise, persistent hacking cough (dry or little sputum), x-ray shows patchy infiltrate = bronchopneumonia
Tx of pneumonia caused by streptococcus pneumoniae
developmt of reactive inflammatory focus -> tissue necrosis - damage d/t host response -> granuloma formation (Gohn) -> dissemination to local LNs -> poss dissemination to other ti
VF: pili (adhesion to epithelial cells), capsule (anti-phagocytosis), biofilm, endotoxin and inflammation, tissue damage, extracellular enzymes and toxins (exotoxin A)
Most common bacterial causes of otitis media
Causes Legionnaire's dz (atypical PNA) in elderly, smokers, and immunocompromised pts. Also causes pontiac fever.
S/s sudden onset, high fever, thick bloody sputum (currant jelly) dx'd via microscopy and culture
Self-limiting dz with s/s of flu-like illness
Found in infected persons or asymptomatic carriers. Transmitted by respiratory droplets. Causes atypical pnemonia
Tx of severe Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus influenzae type-b infections
Gram (-) diplococci - normal flora of the upper respiratory tract, transmitted via respiratory droplets, causes sinusitis & OM
Smallest free-living bacteria; no cell wall; sterols in membrane found in infected persons or asymptomatic carriers. Transmitted via respiratory droplets
Water organisms, gram (-), facultative intracellular pathogen. Ubiquitous in fresh H2O, free living or parasites of protozoa, biofilms in water sources
Virulence factor: capsule (no phagocytosis), endotoxin (fever inflammation and shock d/t septicemia) -> necrotic destruction of alveolar spaces; abscesses
Dx: microscopy, cx (blood agar), bile solubility (+), catalase test (-), quellung reaction (capsule typing)
Enterobacteriaceae family, gram (-) rod, polysaccharide capsule found and transmitted from the human colon and upper respiratory tract ->typical PNA often in ETOH, COPD and DM pts
VF: pyrogenic or erythrogenic exotoxins; phage encoded superantigens -> scarlet fever, TSS. Scarlet fever manifests as diffuse erythematous rash, 'sandpaper' rash, 'strawberry' ton
VF: M-protein (adhesion & antiphagocytic), F-protein (adhesion), and hyaluronic acid capsule -> pharyngitis, sore throat, fever, erthyema, and exudates
S/s: CATARRHAL STG: non-specific, very contagious. PAROXYSMAL STG: paroxysmal cough w/ inspir whoop, mucus prod, vomiting. CONVALESCENT STG: gradual recovery; complic = seizure, ne
Normal flora of the upper respiratory tract that causes sinusitis, otitis media, pneumonia, and meningitis transmitted via endogenous infections and respiratory droplets
S/s of PNA ofen associated with hepatitis
Tx of Bordetella pertussis
Dz that has virulence factors with replication inside the phagosome, lysis of phagocytes -> lung damage & inflammatory response. S/s fever, chills, non-productive cough, CP
Disease caused by bordetella pertussis
Virulence factors: Develomental cycle- EB (infectious, survives outside the host, non reproductive particles), RB (noninfectious, intracytoplasmic reproductive form)
Transmitted through inhalation of spores from animal hair and wool; bioterrorist agent
Survival & growth in alveolar macrophages: cell wall components (mycolic acid, lipids, & LAM)
HintAnswer
Acid-fast rods; slow growth; faculatative intracellular pathogen found in infected persons transmitted via respiratory droplets
Tx of chlamydophilia psittaci
Causes rapid onset, fever, productive cough, bloody sputum (rusty sputum), CP
Tx of Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Dx: not seen on gram stain; serodiagnosis by complement fixation test
Caused lung infections in CF pts and immunocompromised pts
Prevention of Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus influenzae type-b
Tx of chlamydophilia pneumoniae
Primary affects resp system but can attack any part of the body. Active TB: chronic cough, wt loss, night sweats, bloody sputum. Latent TB: no symptoms. Reactivation TB: poss disse
Gram (-) coccobacilli, fastidious found in infected persons or asymptomatic carriers via respiratory droplets
VF: INCREASE IN MUCUS SECRETION & EDEMA: Ptx (A-B toxin, ADP-ribosylation of G-protein -> increased AC activity -> increased cAMP
s/s: fever (rapidly worsens), chills, malaise, HA, edema, massive enlargement of mediastinal LNs, respiratory distress, cyanosis, and shock. Dx: microscopy, cx
Dx clinical with cx selective tellurite medium black colonies. Elek test for toxin production
Dx: clinical, XR, ziehl-neelsen stain (acid-fast), cx (lowenstein-jensen media). Active TB: skin test (+), XR (+), sputum (+). Latent TB: skin test (+), XR (+/-), sputum (-)
Dx with rapid strep test, cx (blood agar), microscopy (gram stain)
Tx of latent TB
Prevention of streptococcus pneumoniae
Dx: not seen on gram stain; cx (eaton's media), serological tests (cold agglutinins & complement fixation tests)
VF: infects tracheobronchial epithelium; IMMOBILIZATION OF CILIA: Fha (filamentous hemagglutinin) + Ptx (pertussis toxin); KILLING OF CILIATED CELLS; tracheal cytotoxin
S/s fever, productive cough, wt loss, dyspnea, and cyanosis. Dx'd via microscopy, cx: blue-green colonies, fruity aroma (grapelike), fluorescence under UV light
Dx: microscopy, cx (chocolate agar), satellite phenomenon with S. aureus, PRP detection (latex agglutination test)
Virulence factors: polysaccharide capsule (antiphagocytic); IgA protease (colonization); pneumolysin (transmembrane-pore-forming toxin)
Presents as sore throat, grey exudates, thick pseudomembrane -> obstruction and suffocation, bull neck, cardiac dysfunction, laryngeal nerve palsy
Gram (+) club-shaped rods; non-spore forming pathogen found in infected persons and asymptomatic carriers causes diptheria via respiratory droplets
Most common bacterial causes of epiglotitis
Gram (-) pleomorphic rods; require X (hermin) & V (NAD) factors. Transmitted via respiratory droplets.
Gram (+) cocci in chains or pairs, catalase (-), B-hemolytic, group A antigen, bacitracin sensitive
Corynebacterium diphtheriae prevention
Small obligate intracellular pathogen; 2 stages: elementary body (EB) & reliculate body (RB); no peptidoglycan layer in cell wall; energy parasites
HintAnswer
Tx for moraxella catarrhalis
Natural reservois is birds, transmitted through inhalation of dried secretions from infected birds, causes psittacosis
Tx of Legionnaire's dz
VF: spore, capsule, PA + EF = edema toxin (EdTx). Inhale of anthrax spores -> germinate & replicate in alveolar macrophages -> transport via pulm lymphatics to mediastinal LNs -> m
Prevention of Legionnaire's dz
Dx: weakly gram (-), cx with BCYE agar (buffered charcoal yeast extract), urinary antigen test
Transmitted by inhalation of contaminated aerosols (AC); risk group: no person to person transmission
Found in nasopharynx & skin of infected persons or asymptomatic carriers causes strep throat, scarlet fever, & other disseminated dzs. Transmitted via resp droplets or direct conta
Most common bacterial cause of PNA in school-age and young adults
S/s: PNA or bronchitis: gradual onset of cough, malaise, little or no fever, dry cough
Tx of bacillus anthracis
Tx of sinusitis and otitis media caused by Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus influenzae type-b
Dx: clinical, cx (charcoal-blood agar)
VF: Pili (adhesion); LPS (inflammation); IgA (mucosal colonization) with s/s dependent on the site of infection
Causes atypical/walking PNA
Prevention of Bordetella pertussis
Virulence factors: P1 adhesion (adherence to respiratory epithelial cells) -> inhibits ciliary action and protection; damage via toxic metabolic products
VF: diptheria toxin (A-B exotoxin): ADP ribosylation of EF-2 -> blocks protein synthesis -> cell death -> necrosis; diffusion of toxin via blood -> damages heart & nervous system
Lancet shaped, gram (+) diplococcus, catalase (-), a-hemolytic, bile-soluble, optochin-sensitive
Corynebacterium diphtheriae tx
Tx of pseudomonas aeruginosa
Normal flora of the nasopharynx lacking a capsule that causes sinusitis & OM
Found in infected persons or asymptomatic carriers. Virulence factors: capsule, type b = poly-ribitol-phosphate
Gram (+) rod single, paired or long serpentine chains ('box car chains'); spore-forming; polypeptide capsule. Ubiquitous/zoonotic.
Tx of active TB
Tx for Streptococcus pyogenes
Most common bacterial cause of CAP
Tx of otitis media caused by streptococcus pneumonia
Presents with ear pain, (+) on microscopy

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