Miscellaneous Quiz / bacterial pathogens

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Can you name the bacterial pathogens?

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Gram (+) club-shaped rods; non-spore forming pathogen found in infected persons and asymptomatic carriers causes diptheria via respiratory droplets
Dz that has virulence factors with replication inside the phagosome, lysis of phagocytes -> lung damage & inflammatory response. S/s fever, chills, non-productive cough, CP
Dx: not seen on gram stain; cx (eaton's media), serological tests (cold agglutinins & complement fixation tests)
VF: INCREASE IN MUCUS SECRETION & EDEMA: Ptx (A-B toxin, ADP-ribosylation of G-protein -> increased AC activity -> increased cAMP
Corynebacterium diphtheriae prevention
VF: infects tracheobronchial epithelium; IMMOBILIZATION OF CILIA: Fha (filamentous hemagglutinin) + Ptx (pertussis toxin); KILLING OF CILIATED CELLS; tracheal cytotoxin
Dx: weakly gram (-), cx with BCYE agar (buffered charcoal yeast extract), urinary antigen test
Presentation: fever, HA, malaise, persistent hacking cough (dry or little sputum), x-ray shows patchy infiltrate = bronchopneumonia
S/s: CATARRHAL STG: non-specific, very contagious. PAROXYSMAL STG: paroxysmal cough w/ inspir whoop, mucus prod, vomiting. CONVALESCENT STG: gradual recovery; complic = seizure, ne
Gram (-) coccobacilli, fastidious found in infected persons or asymptomatic carriers via respiratory droplets
Smallest free-living bacteria; no cell wall; sterols in membrane found in infected persons or asymptomatic carriers. Transmitted via respiratory droplets
Self-limiting dz with s/s of flu-like illness
Transmitted by inhalation of contaminated aerosols (AC); risk group: no person to person transmission
Dx with rapid strep test, cx (blood agar), microscopy (gram stain)
VF: pyrogenic or erythrogenic exotoxins; phage encoded superantigens -> scarlet fever, TSS. Scarlet fever manifests as diffuse erythematous rash, 'sandpaper' rash, 'strawberry' ton
Tx of Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Presents with ear pain, (+) on microscopy
Causes rapid onset, fever, productive cough, bloody sputum (rusty sputum), CP
Presents as sore throat, grey exudates, thick pseudomembrane -> obstruction and suffocation, bull neck, cardiac dysfunction, laryngeal nerve palsy
s/s: fever (rapidly worsens), chills, malaise, HA, edema, massive enlargement of mediastinal LNs, respiratory distress, cyanosis, and shock. Dx: microscopy, cx
VF: M-protein (adhesion & antiphagocytic), F-protein (adhesion), and hyaluronic acid capsule -> pharyngitis, sore throat, fever, erthyema, and exudates
Tx of pneumonia caused by streptococcus pneumoniae
Gram (+) cocci in chains or pairs, catalase (-), B-hemolytic, group A antigen, bacitracin sensitive
S/s of PNA ofen associated with hepatitis
Tx of pseudomonas aeruginosa
Tx of bacillus anthracis
Normal flora of the upper respiratory tract that causes sinusitis, otitis media, pneumonia, and meningitis transmitted via endogenous infections and respiratory droplets
Corynebacterium diphtheriae tx
VF: Pili (adhesion); LPS (inflammation); IgA (mucosal colonization) with s/s dependent on the site of infection
Prevention of Legionnaire's dz
Tx of Bordetella pertussis
Virulence factors: Develomental cycle- EB (infectious, survives outside the host, non reproductive particles), RB (noninfectious, intracytoplasmic reproductive form)
Small obligate intracellular pathogen; 2 stages: elementary body (EB) & reliculate body (RB); no peptidoglycan layer in cell wall; energy parasites
Found in nasopharynx & skin of infected persons or asymptomatic carriers causes strep throat, scarlet fever, & other disseminated dzs. Transmitted via resp droplets or direct conta
Most common bacterial cause of PNA in school-age and young adults
Tx of klebsiella pneumoniae
Transmitted through inhalation of spores from animal hair and wool; bioterrorist agent
VF: pili (adhesion to epithelial cells), capsule (anti-phagocytosis), biofilm, endotoxin and inflammation, tissue damage, extracellular enzymes and toxins (exotoxin A)
Dx: clinical, XR, ziehl-neelsen stain (acid-fast), cx (lowenstein-jensen media). Active TB: skin test (+), XR (+), sputum (+). Latent TB: skin test (+), XR (+/-), sputum (-)
Water organisms, gram (-), facultative intracellular pathogen. Ubiquitous in fresh H2O, free living or parasites of protozoa, biofilms in water sources
Gram (+) rod single, paired or long serpentine chains ('box car chains'); spore-forming; polypeptide capsule. Ubiquitous/zoonotic.
Dx: microscopy, cx (blood agar), bile solubility (+), catalase test (-), quellung reaction (capsule typing)
Disease caused by bordetella pertussis
Most common bacterial cause of CAP
Tx of Legionnaire's dz
Enterobacteriaceae family, gram (-) rod, polysaccharide capsule found and transmitted from the human colon and upper respiratory tract ->typical PNA often in ETOH, COPD and DM pts
Tx of chlamydophilia psittaci
Most common bacterial causes of epiglotitis
Normal flora of the nasopharynx lacking a capsule that causes sinusitis & OM
Tx of latent TB
Most common bacterial causes of otitis media
Tx of severe Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus influenzae type-b infections
Natural reservois is birds, transmitted through inhalation of dried secretions from infected birds, causes psittacosis
S/s fever, productive cough, wt loss, dyspnea, and cyanosis. Dx'd via microscopy, cx: blue-green colonies, fruity aroma (grapelike), fluorescence under UV light
Dx: clinical, cx (charcoal-blood agar)
Tx for Streptococcus pyogenes
Tx of sinusitis and otitis media caused by Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus influenzae type-b
Prevention of Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus influenzae type-b
Lancet shaped, gram (+) diplococcus, catalase (-), a-hemolytic, bile-soluble, optochin-sensitive
Virulence factors: polysaccharide capsule (antiphagocytic); IgA protease (colonization); pneumolysin (transmembrane-pore-forming toxin)
S/s sudden onset, high fever, thick bloody sputum (currant jelly) dx'd via microscopy and culture
Tx of active TB
Virulence factors: P1 adhesion (adherence to respiratory epithelial cells) -> inhibits ciliary action and protection; damage via toxic metabolic products
Tx of otitis media caused by streptococcus pneumonia
Dx: microscopy, cx (chocolate agar), satellite phenomenon with S. aureus, PRP detection (latex agglutination test)
Tx of chlamydophilia pneumoniae
Causes atypical/walking PNA
Tx for moraxella catarrhalis
Found in infected persons or asymptomatic carriers. Virulence factors: capsule, type b = poly-ribitol-phosphate
VF: diptheria toxin (A-B exotoxin): ADP ribosylation of EF-2 -> blocks protein synthesis -> cell death -> necrosis; diffusion of toxin via blood -> damages heart & nervous system
Gram (-) pleomorphic rods; require X (hermin) & V (NAD) factors. Transmitted via respiratory droplets.
Opportunistic gram(-) rods ubiquitous in the environment, transient colonization of the human body transmitted by respiratory secretions and direct contact with fomites
Prevention of Bordetella pertussis
VF: spore, capsule, PA + EF = edema toxin (EdTx). Inhale of anthrax spores -> germinate & replicate in alveolar macrophages -> transport via pulm lymphatics to mediastinal LNs -> m
Causes Legionnaire's dz (atypical PNA) in elderly, smokers, and immunocompromised pts. Also causes pontiac fever.
Prevention of streptococcus pneumoniae
Virulence factor: capsule (no phagocytosis), endotoxin (fever inflammation and shock d/t septicemia) -> necrotic destruction of alveolar spaces; abscesses
Dx: not seen on gram stain; serodiagnosis by complement fixation test
developmt of reactive inflammatory focus -> tissue necrosis - damage d/t host response -> granuloma formation (Gohn) -> dissemination to local LNs -> poss dissemination to other ti
Survival & growth in alveolar macrophages: cell wall components (mycolic acid, lipids, & LAM)
Found in infected persons or asymptomatic carriers. Transmitted by respiratory droplets. Causes atypical pnemonia
Caused lung infections in CF pts and immunocompromised pts
Primary affects resp system but can attack any part of the body. Active TB: chronic cough, wt loss, night sweats, bloody sputum. Latent TB: no symptoms. Reactivation TB: poss disse
Gram (-) diplococci - normal flora of the upper respiratory tract, transmitted via respiratory droplets, causes sinusitis & OM
Acid-fast rods; slow growth; faculatative intracellular pathogen found in infected persons transmitted via respiratory droplets
Dx clinical with cx selective tellurite medium black colonies. Elek test for toxin production
S/s: PNA or bronchitis: gradual onset of cough, malaise, little or no fever, dry cough

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