Miscellaneous Quiz / bacterial pathogens

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Can you name the bacterial pathogens?

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Tx of chlamydophilia pneumoniae
VF: spore, capsule, PA + EF = edema toxin (EdTx). Inhale of anthrax spores -> germinate & replicate in alveolar macrophages -> transport via pulm lymphatics to mediastinal LNs -> m
Dx clinical with cx selective tellurite medium black colonies. Elek test for toxin production
Dx: microscopy, cx (chocolate agar), satellite phenomenon with S. aureus, PRP detection (latex agglutination test)
Dx: clinical, cx (charcoal-blood agar)
Virulence factors: polysaccharide capsule (antiphagocytic); IgA protease (colonization); pneumolysin (transmembrane-pore-forming toxin)
Normal flora of the nasopharynx lacking a capsule that causes sinusitis & OM
Water organisms, gram (-), facultative intracellular pathogen. Ubiquitous in fresh H2O, free living or parasites of protozoa, biofilms in water sources
VF: pyrogenic or erythrogenic exotoxins; phage encoded superantigens -> scarlet fever, TSS. Scarlet fever manifests as diffuse erythematous rash, 'sandpaper' rash, 'strawberry' ton
Dx: microscopy, cx (blood agar), bile solubility (+), catalase test (-), quellung reaction (capsule typing)
Tx of chlamydophilia psittaci
Dx: not seen on gram stain; cx (eaton's media), serological tests (cold agglutinins & complement fixation tests)
Transmitted through inhalation of spores from animal hair and wool; bioterrorist agent
Tx of otitis media caused by streptococcus pneumonia
Virulence factors: Develomental cycle- EB (infectious, survives outside the host, non reproductive particles), RB (noninfectious, intracytoplasmic reproductive form)
Transmitted by inhalation of contaminated aerosols (AC); risk group: no person to person transmission
Tx of Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Prevention of Bordetella pertussis
Gram (-) pleomorphic rods; require X (hermin) & V (NAD) factors. Transmitted via respiratory droplets.
Lancet shaped, gram (+) diplococcus, catalase (-), a-hemolytic, bile-soluble, optochin-sensitive
Tx of pneumonia caused by streptococcus pneumoniae
Acid-fast rods; slow growth; faculatative intracellular pathogen found in infected persons transmitted via respiratory droplets
Tx of bacillus anthracis
Tx of Legionnaire's dz
Tx for moraxella catarrhalis
Presents as sore throat, grey exudates, thick pseudomembrane -> obstruction and suffocation, bull neck, cardiac dysfunction, laryngeal nerve palsy
Most common bacterial cause of PNA in school-age and young adults
Prevention of Legionnaire's dz
VF: pili (adhesion to epithelial cells), capsule (anti-phagocytosis), biofilm, endotoxin and inflammation, tissue damage, extracellular enzymes and toxins (exotoxin A)
Corynebacterium diphtheriae prevention
S/s: PNA or bronchitis: gradual onset of cough, malaise, little or no fever, dry cough
Self-limiting dz with s/s of flu-like illness
Smallest free-living bacteria; no cell wall; sterols in membrane found in infected persons or asymptomatic carriers. Transmitted via respiratory droplets
Natural reservois is birds, transmitted through inhalation of dried secretions from infected birds, causes psittacosis
Most common bacterial causes of otitis media
VF: diptheria toxin (A-B exotoxin): ADP ribosylation of EF-2 -> blocks protein synthesis -> cell death -> necrosis; diffusion of toxin via blood -> damages heart & nervous system
Found in nasopharynx & skin of infected persons or asymptomatic carriers causes strep throat, scarlet fever, & other disseminated dzs. Transmitted via resp droplets or direct conta
Survival & growth in alveolar macrophages: cell wall components (mycolic acid, lipids, & LAM)
Presentation: fever, HA, malaise, persistent hacking cough (dry or little sputum), x-ray shows patchy infiltrate = bronchopneumonia
Causes Legionnaire's dz (atypical PNA) in elderly, smokers, and immunocompromised pts. Also causes pontiac fever.
Caused lung infections in CF pts and immunocompromised pts
Primary affects resp system but can attack any part of the body. Active TB: chronic cough, wt loss, night sweats, bloody sputum. Latent TB: no symptoms. Reactivation TB: poss disse
Tx of pseudomonas aeruginosa
Found in infected persons or asymptomatic carriers. Virulence factors: capsule, type b = poly-ribitol-phosphate
Gram (-) coccobacilli, fastidious found in infected persons or asymptomatic carriers via respiratory droplets
Tx of latent TB
Gram (+) rod single, paired or long serpentine chains ('box car chains'); spore-forming; polypeptide capsule. Ubiquitous/zoonotic.
Tx of severe Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus influenzae type-b infections
Gram (+) club-shaped rods; non-spore forming pathogen found in infected persons and asymptomatic carriers causes diptheria via respiratory droplets
Causes atypical/walking PNA
S/s: CATARRHAL STG: non-specific, very contagious. PAROXYSMAL STG: paroxysmal cough w/ inspir whoop, mucus prod, vomiting. CONVALESCENT STG: gradual recovery; complic = seizure, ne
Causes rapid onset, fever, productive cough, bloody sputum (rusty sputum), CP
S/s fever, productive cough, wt loss, dyspnea, and cyanosis. Dx'd via microscopy, cx: blue-green colonies, fruity aroma (grapelike), fluorescence under UV light
Dx with rapid strep test, cx (blood agar), microscopy (gram stain)
Most common bacterial cause of CAP
Dx: weakly gram (-), cx with BCYE agar (buffered charcoal yeast extract), urinary antigen test
Corynebacterium diphtheriae tx
Most common bacterial causes of epiglotitis
s/s: fever (rapidly worsens), chills, malaise, HA, edema, massive enlargement of mediastinal LNs, respiratory distress, cyanosis, and shock. Dx: microscopy, cx
VF: INCREASE IN MUCUS SECRETION & EDEMA: Ptx (A-B toxin, ADP-ribosylation of G-protein -> increased AC activity -> increased cAMP
S/s of PNA ofen associated with hepatitis
Virulence factors: P1 adhesion (adherence to respiratory epithelial cells) -> inhibits ciliary action and protection; damage via toxic metabolic products
Disease caused by bordetella pertussis
VF: Pili (adhesion); LPS (inflammation); IgA (mucosal colonization) with s/s dependent on the site of infection
VF: infects tracheobronchial epithelium; IMMOBILIZATION OF CILIA: Fha (filamentous hemagglutinin) + Ptx (pertussis toxin); KILLING OF CILIATED CELLS; tracheal cytotoxin
Prevention of Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus influenzae type-b
Dx: not seen on gram stain; serodiagnosis by complement fixation test
Found in infected persons or asymptomatic carriers. Transmitted by respiratory droplets. Causes atypical pnemonia
Dx: clinical, XR, ziehl-neelsen stain (acid-fast), cx (lowenstein-jensen media). Active TB: skin test (+), XR (+), sputum (+). Latent TB: skin test (+), XR (+/-), sputum (-)
S/s sudden onset, high fever, thick bloody sputum (currant jelly) dx'd via microscopy and culture
Dz that has virulence factors with replication inside the phagosome, lysis of phagocytes -> lung damage & inflammatory response. S/s fever, chills, non-productive cough, CP
Prevention of streptococcus pneumoniae
Tx of Bordetella pertussis
Presents with ear pain, (+) on microscopy
Enterobacteriaceae family, gram (-) rod, polysaccharide capsule found and transmitted from the human colon and upper respiratory tract ->typical PNA often in ETOH, COPD and DM pts
VF: M-protein (adhesion & antiphagocytic), F-protein (adhesion), and hyaluronic acid capsule -> pharyngitis, sore throat, fever, erthyema, and exudates
Tx of sinusitis and otitis media caused by Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus influenzae type-b
Gram (-) diplococci - normal flora of the upper respiratory tract, transmitted via respiratory droplets, causes sinusitis & OM
developmt of reactive inflammatory focus -> tissue necrosis - damage d/t host response -> granuloma formation (Gohn) -> dissemination to local LNs -> poss dissemination to other ti
Tx of klebsiella pneumoniae
Tx for Streptococcus pyogenes
Normal flora of the upper respiratory tract that causes sinusitis, otitis media, pneumonia, and meningitis transmitted via endogenous infections and respiratory droplets
Small obligate intracellular pathogen; 2 stages: elementary body (EB) & reliculate body (RB); no peptidoglycan layer in cell wall; energy parasites
Virulence factor: capsule (no phagocytosis), endotoxin (fever inflammation and shock d/t septicemia) -> necrotic destruction of alveolar spaces; abscesses
Tx of active TB
Gram (+) cocci in chains or pairs, catalase (-), B-hemolytic, group A antigen, bacitracin sensitive
Opportunistic gram(-) rods ubiquitous in the environment, transient colonization of the human body transmitted by respiratory secretions and direct contact with fomites

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Created Apr 30, 2011ReportNominate

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