Miscellaneous Quiz / bacterial pathogens

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Can you name the bacterial pathogens?

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Corynebacterium diphtheriae tx
Most common bacterial cause of CAP
Normal flora of the nasopharynx lacking a capsule that causes sinusitis & OM
Virulence factors: P1 adhesion (adherence to respiratory epithelial cells) -> inhibits ciliary action and protection; damage via toxic metabolic products
Tx of active TB
Acid-fast rods; slow growth; faculatative intracellular pathogen found in infected persons transmitted via respiratory droplets
Dz that has virulence factors with replication inside the phagosome, lysis of phagocytes -> lung damage & inflammatory response. S/s fever, chills, non-productive cough, CP
Gram (+) rod single, paired or long serpentine chains ('box car chains'); spore-forming; polypeptide capsule. Ubiquitous/zoonotic.
Gram (+) club-shaped rods; non-spore forming pathogen found in infected persons and asymptomatic carriers causes diptheria via respiratory droplets
Prevention of streptococcus pneumoniae
Dx: weakly gram (-), cx with BCYE agar (buffered charcoal yeast extract), urinary antigen test
VF: diptheria toxin (A-B exotoxin): ADP ribosylation of EF-2 -> blocks protein synthesis -> cell death -> necrosis; diffusion of toxin via blood -> damages heart & nervous system
Small obligate intracellular pathogen; 2 stages: elementary body (EB) & reliculate body (RB); no peptidoglycan layer in cell wall; energy parasites
Tx of klebsiella pneumoniae
VF: M-protein (adhesion & antiphagocytic), F-protein (adhesion), and hyaluronic acid capsule -> pharyngitis, sore throat, fever, erthyema, and exudates
Causes rapid onset, fever, productive cough, bloody sputum (rusty sputum), CP
Dx: microscopy, cx (chocolate agar), satellite phenomenon with S. aureus, PRP detection (latex agglutination test)
VF: pyrogenic or erythrogenic exotoxins; phage encoded superantigens -> scarlet fever, TSS. Scarlet fever manifests as diffuse erythematous rash, 'sandpaper' rash, 'strawberry' ton
Tx for moraxella catarrhalis
Prevention of Bordetella pertussis
s/s: fever (rapidly worsens), chills, malaise, HA, edema, massive enlargement of mediastinal LNs, respiratory distress, cyanosis, and shock. Dx: microscopy, cx
Tx for Streptococcus pyogenes
Corynebacterium diphtheriae prevention
S/s of PNA ofen associated with hepatitis
Survival & growth in alveolar macrophages: cell wall components (mycolic acid, lipids, & LAM)
Gram (-) coccobacilli, fastidious found in infected persons or asymptomatic carriers via respiratory droplets
Found in infected persons or asymptomatic carriers. Virulence factors: capsule, type b = poly-ribitol-phosphate
Gram (+) cocci in chains or pairs, catalase (-), B-hemolytic, group A antigen, bacitracin sensitive
VF: infects tracheobronchial epithelium; IMMOBILIZATION OF CILIA: Fha (filamentous hemagglutinin) + Ptx (pertussis toxin); KILLING OF CILIATED CELLS; tracheal cytotoxin
S/s sudden onset, high fever, thick bloody sputum (currant jelly) dx'd via microscopy and culture
VF: spore, capsule, PA + EF = edema toxin (EdTx). Inhale of anthrax spores -> germinate & replicate in alveolar macrophages -> transport via pulm lymphatics to mediastinal LNs -> m
S/s fever, productive cough, wt loss, dyspnea, and cyanosis. Dx'd via microscopy, cx: blue-green colonies, fruity aroma (grapelike), fluorescence under UV light
Smallest free-living bacteria; no cell wall; sterols in membrane found in infected persons or asymptomatic carriers. Transmitted via respiratory droplets
Transmitted by inhalation of contaminated aerosols (AC); risk group: no person to person transmission
Presents as sore throat, grey exudates, thick pseudomembrane -> obstruction and suffocation, bull neck, cardiac dysfunction, laryngeal nerve palsy
Tx of otitis media caused by streptococcus pneumonia
Disease caused by bordetella pertussis
S/s: CATARRHAL STG: non-specific, very contagious. PAROXYSMAL STG: paroxysmal cough w/ inspir whoop, mucus prod, vomiting. CONVALESCENT STG: gradual recovery; complic = seizure, ne
Primary affects resp system but can attack any part of the body. Active TB: chronic cough, wt loss, night sweats, bloody sputum. Latent TB: no symptoms. Reactivation TB: poss disse
Tx of chlamydophilia psittaci
Causes Legionnaire's dz (atypical PNA) in elderly, smokers, and immunocompromised pts. Also causes pontiac fever.
Dx clinical with cx selective tellurite medium black colonies. Elek test for toxin production
Found in infected persons or asymptomatic carriers. Transmitted by respiratory droplets. Causes atypical pnemonia
Most common bacterial causes of epiglotitis
Dx: clinical, XR, ziehl-neelsen stain (acid-fast), cx (lowenstein-jensen media). Active TB: skin test (+), XR (+), sputum (+). Latent TB: skin test (+), XR (+/-), sputum (-)
Dx: not seen on gram stain; cx (eaton's media), serological tests (cold agglutinins & complement fixation tests)
Dx: clinical, cx (charcoal-blood agar)
Opportunistic gram(-) rods ubiquitous in the environment, transient colonization of the human body transmitted by respiratory secretions and direct contact with fomites
Dx with rapid strep test, cx (blood agar), microscopy (gram stain)
Tx of chlamydophilia pneumoniae
S/s: PNA or bronchitis: gradual onset of cough, malaise, little or no fever, dry cough
Presentation: fever, HA, malaise, persistent hacking cough (dry or little sputum), x-ray shows patchy infiltrate = bronchopneumonia
Tx of latent TB
Enterobacteriaceae family, gram (-) rod, polysaccharide capsule found and transmitted from the human colon and upper respiratory tract ->typical PNA often in ETOH, COPD and DM pts
Dx: microscopy, cx (blood agar), bile solubility (+), catalase test (-), quellung reaction (capsule typing)
Most common bacterial cause of PNA in school-age and young adults
Natural reservois is birds, transmitted through inhalation of dried secretions from infected birds, causes psittacosis
Gram (-) pleomorphic rods; require X (hermin) & V (NAD) factors. Transmitted via respiratory droplets.
VF: Pili (adhesion); LPS (inflammation); IgA (mucosal colonization) with s/s dependent on the site of infection
Gram (-) diplococci - normal flora of the upper respiratory tract, transmitted via respiratory droplets, causes sinusitis & OM
Most common bacterial causes of otitis media
Virulence factors: Develomental cycle- EB (infectious, survives outside the host, non reproductive particles), RB (noninfectious, intracytoplasmic reproductive form)
Tx of pneumonia caused by streptococcus pneumoniae
Water organisms, gram (-), facultative intracellular pathogen. Ubiquitous in fresh H2O, free living or parasites of protozoa, biofilms in water sources
Prevention of Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus influenzae type-b
Virulence factor: capsule (no phagocytosis), endotoxin (fever inflammation and shock d/t septicemia) -> necrotic destruction of alveolar spaces; abscesses
Presents with ear pain, (+) on microscopy
Transmitted through inhalation of spores from animal hair and wool; bioterrorist agent
Dx: not seen on gram stain; serodiagnosis by complement fixation test
developmt of reactive inflammatory focus -> tissue necrosis - damage d/t host response -> granuloma formation (Gohn) -> dissemination to local LNs -> poss dissemination to other ti
Self-limiting dz with s/s of flu-like illness
Normal flora of the upper respiratory tract that causes sinusitis, otitis media, pneumonia, and meningitis transmitted via endogenous infections and respiratory droplets
Tx of Bordetella pertussis
Virulence factors: polysaccharide capsule (antiphagocytic); IgA protease (colonization); pneumolysin (transmembrane-pore-forming toxin)
VF: pili (adhesion to epithelial cells), capsule (anti-phagocytosis), biofilm, endotoxin and inflammation, tissue damage, extracellular enzymes and toxins (exotoxin A)
Prevention of Legionnaire's dz
Caused lung infections in CF pts and immunocompromised pts
Tx of pseudomonas aeruginosa
Tx of bacillus anthracis
Tx of severe Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus influenzae type-b infections
VF: INCREASE IN MUCUS SECRETION & EDEMA: Ptx (A-B toxin, ADP-ribosylation of G-protein -> increased AC activity -> increased cAMP
Found in nasopharynx & skin of infected persons or asymptomatic carriers causes strep throat, scarlet fever, & other disseminated dzs. Transmitted via resp droplets or direct conta
Tx of sinusitis and otitis media caused by Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus influenzae type-b
Causes atypical/walking PNA
Tx of Legionnaire's dz
Lancet shaped, gram (+) diplococcus, catalase (-), a-hemolytic, bile-soluble, optochin-sensitive
Tx of Mycoplasma pneumoniae

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