Science Quiz / Developmental Biology Terms

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Can you name the Developmental Biology Terms?

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DefinitionTerm
the large nucleus of the primary oocyte is ___ ___
process by which a less specialized cell becomes a more specialized cell type, generation of diversity
is the biological process that causes an organism to develop its shape, the distribution of cells
drastic change from larval to juvenile stage
free living, immature form of adult
fusion of two haploid gametes
multiple sperm entries into egg
series of rapid cellular divisions without growth in zygote
the smaller cells in a cytoplasm divided with no change in size
____ stage, many blastomeres open up blastocoel
Unequal cleavage happens after this # of divisions
sparse, evenly distributed yolk
moderate vegetal yolk disposition
dense yolk concentrated at one pole
dense yolk in centre of egg
isolecital pattern seen in echinoderms and amphioxus
isolecithal pattern seen in annelids, molluscs and flatworms
isolecithal pattern seen in tunicates
isolecithal pattern seen in mammals and nematodes
mesolecithal pattern seen in amphibians
telolecithal pattern seen in cephalopod molluscs
telolecithal pattern seen in birds, reptiles and fish
centrolecithal pattern seen in most insects
complete cleavage
incomplete cleavage
____ cleavage results in micromeres, mesomeres and macromeres
inner gastrulation layer
middle gastrulation layer
outer gastrulation layer
site of invagination
clade where mouth is formed de novo and blastopore becomes anus
clade where blastopore becomes mouth
Cleavage in Amphibians: ____ cells are small divide quickly and mobile
Cleavage in Amphibians:____ cells are larger divide slowly and are immobile
____ cells give rise to gametes
process of making gametes
____ cells give rise to non-sexual structures of the body
cells from different layers interact to form tissues and organs
____ cells only arise from ectoderm
____ cells only arise from mesoderm
sexual maturity in the juvenile or larval stage, but at the same age as the ancestral form, (body development slows down)
sexual maturity in juvenile or larval form, but at an earlier age than the ancestral form, (gonad development speeds up)
process in which DNA becomes RNA
process in which mRNA becomes protein
is a process by which a molecule of nucleic acid (usually DNA, but can also be RNA) is broken and then joined to a different one
undifferentiated cells are ____ cells
embryonic stem cells capable of differentiating into any cell type
embryonic stem cells that are capable of differentiating into almost all cell types, except trophoblast cells
____ are cells forming the outer layer of a blastocyst, which provide nutrients to the embryo and develop into a large part of the placenta
adult stem cells that can form many cell types, e.g. blood cells
adult stem cells with only 1 type of linege, e.g. spermatogenic stem cells
actively dividing cells can be idntified with this
seen in planarians, when almost any region can reform an entire organism
transformation of one differentiated cell type into another
can be produced by expression of specific transcription factors, ___ ___ ___ ___
____ embryonic stem cells show an atypical cell cycle rgualtion, characterized by a high proliferation rate and short G1 phase
iPS
introduction of cell proliferation increases ___ ___
__ __ __ inhibits sucessful reprograming
germ cells arise from __ __ __
Germ Cell Determination in Amphibians: ____ region of the frog zygote contains the determinants for germ cell formation
Germ Cell Determination in Amphibians: __ __ migrate from vegetal pole to genetal ridge and give rise to germ cells
Germ Cell Determination in Nematodes: only a fraction of the chromosome in the animal derived blastomere survives-genes are lost, ___ ___
one of 2 PGC suppresor genes
in the fruit fly: all the cleavage nuclei are contained within a common cytoplasm, __ __
in the fruit fly: germ cells migrate from posterior pole to ____
full name of gcl gene, essential for germ cell development
____ fluid allows embryogenesis to occur on land
In amniotes: PGCs arise from stem cells in __ __
In amniotes: PGCs migrate from extraembryonic tissues to the __ __
In amniotes: migration involves ____, the expression of genes in the mesodermal genital ridge
In amniotes: migration involves ____, the expression of genes in tissues surrounding PGC origins
In amniotes, PGC migration involve this attraction signal
PGCs undergo ____ during migration
helps the embryo exchange gases and handle liquid waste
___ is produced by cells along migration route and is critical for sucessful germ cell production
immature egg
mature reproductive egg
PGCs are ___ (produce both types of gametes)
the sex of turtles and crocodiles is determined by this
the specific location for spermatogenesis, located in testicles,__ __
accessory cells associated with PGCs
cells in connective tissue that secrete testosterone
A1 spermatogonia are this type of stem cell
cell with several nuclei
these accumulate in the tail of sperm
in spermatid: forms a cap that covers nucleus and contains enzymes that will digest the protective coat of the egg
the information molecules in early development are mostly ___ from the mother
In oogenesis, the result of the 1st meiotic division
In ogenesis, the result of the 2nd meiotic division
mammals produce all primary oocytes before ___
____ start dying in the female embryo at 7 monts and continue to do so until menopause
in this class oogenesis continues throughout lifecycle
accumulation of yolk protein in amphibia
yolk protein made in the liver and secreted into bloodstream in amphibia
In amphibians: ____ activates the mitosis promoting factor (MPF)
a protein complex that prompts the completion of meiosis 1 and leads to GV breakdown
The start of meiosis two triggers a 2nd block, __ __ that lifts with fertilization
__ __ during fertilization initiates a cascade leading to breakdown of CSF and completion of meiosis 2
egg does not need to be fertilized to develop, virgin birth
DefinitionTerm
gonadotropin releasing hormone, GnRH, is released from here
gonadotropins are released from here
a type of gonadotropin
in ovulation, oocyte plus surrounding somatic cells
in ovulation, the egg matures within the ____
FSH stimulates follicle to produce ___
_____ causes proliferation of the uterine wall
____ is stimulated by LH to secrete progesterone
progesterone inhibits ____ production
If the egg is not fertilized this is called the ____ phase
If the egg is not fertilized _____ secretion stops
If the egg is not fertilized ____ is secreted and the cycle starts again
copulation activated ovulation induces ____ release from pituitary
term for when females ovulate at specific times of year, i.e. heat
human kind of ovulation: ____
small white dot in an unfertilized chicken egg that would have developed into a chick, __ __
Said sperm were parasites
Said sperm were absent in sexually immature males
Demonstrated sperm entry into the egg in sea urchins
Use of a chemical concentration gradient to regulate or direct the motile behaviour of a cell used by an egg to attract sperm, responsible for species specificity in sperm and egg
14 amino acid peptide secreted by jelly coat in chemotaxis during sea urchin fertilization, stimulate ATP production by sperm mitochondria
the final stage of sperm maturation that occurs once sperm have spent a species specific amount of time in the reproductive tract that enables the sperm to fertilize the egg
oocytes are surrounded by a capsule of __ __ which serves as a protective barrier
__ __ outer layer that lies against plasma membrane of egg and jelly layer
vitelline envelope contian these which determine sperm-egg recognition
organisms that release gametes into water are called ____ reproducers
sperm produces ____ which is found on the acrosomal process and is involved in recognition
vitelline envelope is to sea urchins what __ __ is to mammals
cumulus is made of ____ cells
acrosome contains ____ enzymes
___ with carbohydrate moiety produced strongest sperm clumping
these two glycoproteins are responsible for binding sperm to egg, found in mouse zona pellucida
In mouse: when a receptor on the outside surface of a sperm membrane binds ZP3 this is increased in the sperm
In mouse: an increased concentration of Ca2+ trigers this reaction, which causes the release of hydoroytic enzymes to diget a hole in the egg membrane
in mouse: the 2nd receptor in the acrosomal membrane binds to this in the zona pellucida which enables sperm to continue binding to the egg
fusion of egg and sperm activates the ____ of the oocyte
protein synthesis in a zygote does not require transcription of the zygotes ___
____ impedes cleavage and membrane formation
cleavage furrow passes through animal and vegetal pole
cleavage furrow separates the animal pole from the vegetal pole
Snail coiling: origin of sinistral and dextral coiling based on orientation of the __ __ at 3rd cleavage
Snail coiling: type of cleavage is under the influence of the genotype of the ___ parent
at the 8 cell stage in mammals this occurs characterized by an increased expression of cadherins
Mammalian Cleavage: internal cells surrounded by a larger group of external cells
In a mammalian blastocyst the external cells become the ____ which becomes the extra embryonic membranes
In mammalian blastocyst the inner cells become the __ __ __
In mammals the trophoblast is necessary for cells to adhere to the ___
In mammalian blastocysts the trophoblast cells do this to digest the extracellular matrix of the uterine wall, __ __
The inner membrane of the mammalian uterus
Referred to as the embryo proper, __ __ __
in the ICM water follows the active transport of ___
the mitotic division of the nucleus
the division of the cell
the contractile ring of cytokines is composed of these
Use this to label and study tubulin, __ __
Use this to label and study actin
internal chamber of a blastula
In birds the location of blastocoel formation
In birds the ____ forms from the epiblast
In birds forms in the space between epiblast and hypoblast
In mammals allows blastomeres to stick together
Cadherins are ___ dependent adhesion molecules
In mammals: the formation of epithelial __ __ between blastomeres allows seal to form between external and internal environments of blastocoel
In mammal blastocoel formation, H2O movement generates ____ pressure
In mammal formation of the blastocoel Na+ is moving ___ and H2O is moving ___
the stage during embryonic development in which zygotic gene transcription is activated, __-__ __
If the cell cycle doesn't have G stages, this does not occur, __ __
There is a variation in the number of cell ____ between species before the mid blastula transition
Delay in timing of mid blastula transition depends on the amount of __ __
Delay in timing of mid blastula transition depends on the ____ synthesized during oogenesis
___ ___ sites of very active RNA synthesis
physical location of a gene on a chromosome
Chromosome protion that encodes protein
chromosome protion that is removed during spicing
section of chromosome that regulates gene transcription
Modification of primary transcript in nucleus includes the ____ of the 5' end with 7 methylguanosine
Modification of primary transcript in nucleus includes the ____ of the 3' end with 20-200 adenines
Modification of primary transcript in nucleus includes ____, the removal of ntronic sequences
Start codon
Stop codon
In chromatin methylation, ____ opens chromatin to transcription factors and influences which genes are transcribed
in chromatin acetylation, ___ opens chromatin to transcriptiion factors and influences which genes are transcribed
In DNA methylation, CH3 binds to ___ in CpG dinucleotide residues, may positively or negatively influence which genes are transcribed
In condensed nucleosomes, histone tails are largely ___
Methylation modifies ___ ___ binding
The promotor region is located ___ from the gene to be transcribed
___ ___ can be upstream or downstream from the gene and activate or repress transcription
the ____ expressed by a gene can also behave as a transcription factor ad can activate or suppress a specific gene
Gene regulation contrinutes to cellular_____
When transcription factors act on the same chromosome as a gene, this is the ___ configuration
When transcription factors act on a different chromosome than the gene this is the ___ configuration
These molecules consis of the following domains: DNA binding, trans-activating and maybe a protein-protein interaction domain
Specific combinations of these are necessary to activate a gene
These are transcription factors that tend to have a longer lasting effect
Differential 'tissue-specific' gene expression can be acheived through ____ mRNA splicing
Gene expression pattern changes can be due to a change in ___ rates of mRNA
Gene expression pattern changes can be due to a change in ___ rates of mRNA or protein
Process by which small ribosome subunit binds to mRNA and they are joined by large subunit and initiator tRNA (Met)
Process by which tRNA binds to A site and covalent bonding between amino acids occur, ribosome moves downstream
Process by which ribosome reach stop codon and release factors release polypeptide from organism

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